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Notes on Heidelberg Catechism

Introduction

These outlines were developed initially in preparation for the Adult Catechism class of the Oceanside United Reformed Church. I have also used some of this material as part of courses in the Three Forms of Unity and Reformed Confessions at Westminster Seminary California.

Catechism Translation

I have used and modified where necessary the following editions: The 1863 translation found in Schaff's Creeds of Christendom vol.3; The translation published in the 1959 Psalter-Hymnal (CRC) and the translation published in 1978 by the Reformed Church in the US.

Using These Notes

Since these notes are a preliminary step toward a possible larger, more complete published commentary on the Catechism, please restrict your use of them. You are welcome to use them for Christian education courses or for other like uses. If you use them, please give appropriate acknowledgment. This outline will be updated as the body of notes grows.

Part 1: Guilt (Law)

1. What is your only comfort in life and in death?

That I, with body and soul, both in life and in death,1 am not my own,2 but belong to my faithful Savior Jesus Christ,3 who with His precious blood 4 has fully satisfied for all my sins, 5 and redeemed me from all the power of the devil;6 and so preserves me,7 that without the will of my Father in heaven not a hair can fall from my head; 8 indeed, that all things must work together for my salvation.9 Wherefore, by His Holy Spirit, He also assures me of eternal life,10 and makes me heartily willing and ready from now on to live for Him.11

1 Romans 14:7,8. 2 I Corinthians 6:19. 3 I Corinthians 3:23. 4 I Peter 1:18,19.5 I John 1:7. I John 2:2. 6 I John 3:8. 7 John 6:39. 8 Matthew 10:29,30. Luke 21:18. 9 Romans 8:28. 10 II Corinthians 1:21,22. Ephesians 1:13,14. Romans 8:16. 11 Romans 8:1.

  1. Introduction
    1. Catechism not a confession
    2. It is suitably personal
    3. It begins with Gospel
    4. The Gospel is for Me (pro me)
  2. Not My Own (Rom 14:7-8; 1 Cor 6:19-20)
    1. Body & Soul
    2. Life and Death
  3. Belong to My Faithful Savior & Substitute;
    1. Redeemed From Hell.
    2. Sovereignly Preserved (John 6:39)
    3. The Son Agrees with the Father (pactum salutis)
    4. Works All Things for My Salvation.
  4. Assured By the Holy Spirit (2 Cor 1:20-2)
    1. Of Eternal Life
    2. Ready and Willing
    3. To Live for him

2.How many things are necessary for you to know to live and die in the joy of this comfort?

Three things: first, the greatness of my sin and misery;1 second, how I am redeemed from all my sins and misery;2 third, how I am to be thankful to God for such redemption.3

1 Rom 3:9-10; 1 Jn 1:10; 2 Jn 17:3; Acts 4:12, 10:43; 3 Mt 5:16; Rom 6:13; Eph 5:8-10; 1 Pt 2:9-10

1.       Introduction

1.       The Structure of the Faith.

1.       Luther's Recovery

2.       Calvin's Correction

2.       Guilt, Grace and Gratitude v. Spirit/Matter Dualism.

2.       Law/Guilt (Rom 1; 3:9-10; 1 Jn 1:10; Eph 2:1-4)

1.       Pelagius & Finney Were Wrong

2.       Augustine, Luther and Calvin were right.

3.       The Three Uses of the Law

1.       Pedagogical

2.       Civil

3.       Normative

3.       Gospel/Grace (Rom 3; 4; Eph 2:8-10; Gal 3; Jn 17:3; Acts 4:12, 10:43)

1.       The Gospel is "Outside You"

1.       1. It is Christ's Story

2.       2. Christ For Us

2.       Mission Accomplished

3.       Favor v. Medicine/Magic.

4.       For Christians Too.

4.       Gratitude (Gal 2:17-21; 5:13-Mt 5:16; Rom 6:13; Eph 5:8-10; 1 Pt 2:9-10)

1.       Gratitude Flows From Gospel

2.       It Must Not Remain Outside!

3.       It Drives us to Christ Again

3. From where do you know your sins and misery?

From the Law of God.1

1 Rom 3:20

4. What does the Law of God require of us?

Christ teaches us in sum in Matthew 22: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.1 This is the first and great commandment; and the second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend all the law and the prophets."2

1Deut 6:5; 2 Lev 19:18

5. Can you keep all this perfectly?

No,1 for I am by nature inclined to hate God and my neighbor.2

1 Rom 3:10, 23; 1 Jn 1:8, 10; 2 Gen 6:5, 8:21; Jer 17:9; Rom 7:23, 8:7; Eph 2:3; Tit 3:3

1.       Introduction

1.       The Threefold Division of the Law

1.       Civil

2.       Ceremonial

3.       Moral

2.       B. The Abrogation of the Penalties of the Law.

3.       C. The Three Uses of the Law

1.       Pedagogical

2.       Civil

3.       Normative

4.       The Knowledge of Sin (Rom 3.20)

1.       To Those "Under the Law;"

2.       The Whole World "Held AccountableÂ…;"

3.       "By the Works of the Law" No One Justified;

4.       "Through the Law Comes the Knowledge of Sin."

5.       A Relentless Master (Gal 3.10)

1.       "Cursed is everyone who does not continueÂ…"

2.       "Â…To do Everything Written in the Book of the LawÂ…"

6.       The Deadly Combination with Sin (Rom 3.23; 1 Cor 15.56)

1.       "The Wages of Sin is Death."

2.       "The Sting of Death is Sin, and the Power of Sin is the Law."

6. Did God, then, create man thus wicked and perverse?

No,1 but God created man good and after His own image,2 that is, in righteousness and true holiness, that he might rightly know God his Creator, heartily love Him, and live with Him in eternal blessedness, to praise and glorify Him.3

1 Genesis 1:31. 2 Genesis 1:26,27. 3 2 Corinthians 3:18; Colossians 3:10; Ephesians 4:24.

1.       Introduction 

1.       Ancient Anthropological Heresies

1.       Image v. Likeness

2.       Trichotomy

3.       Pelagianism

4.       Non-Christian Dualism

2.       The Modern Doctrine of Man

1.       Neo-Pelagianism

1.       Freedom of the will

2.       Human autonomy

2.       Universal Paternity of God and Fraternity of Men

2.       The Doctrine of Creation

1.       "And God Said"

2.       "It was Good"

3.       Doctrine of Man

1.        In the Image of God

1.       Moral Not Ontological Analogy

2.       Just

3.       Holy

2.       Knowing God

4.       The Covenant of Works

1.       Legal

2.       Personal

3.       Federal

4.       Eschatological

5.       Conclusion

1.       We were good

2.       We were just

3.       We were in covenant

4.       Before the fall

Heidelberg Catechism Q.6 (Excursus)

WCF 7.2. The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity, upon condition of perfect and personal obedience.

The Covenant of Works

1.       Legal

1.       GE 2:8 Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. 9 And the LORD God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground--trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

2.       GE 2:15 The LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it. 16 And the LORD God commanded the man, "You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; 17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die."

3.       HOS 6:7 Like Adam, they have broken the covenant--they were unfaithful to me there.

4.       GAL 3:10 All who rely on observing the law are under a curse, for it is written: "Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the Book of the Law." 11 Clearly no one is justified before God by the law, because, "The righteous will live by faith." 12 The law is not based on faith; on the contrary, "The man who does these things will live by them."

5.       RO 10:5 Moses describes in this way the righteousness that is by the law: "The man who does these things will live by them."

2.       Personal

1.       "You shall surely dieÂ…."

2.       GAL 3:21 Is the law, therefore, opposed to the promises of God? Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that could impart life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law.

3.       Federal

1.       RO 5:12 Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned-- 13 for before the law was given, sin was in the world. But sin is not taken into account when there is no law. 14 Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who was a pattern of the one to come.

2.       2 Cor 15:45 1st Adam...2nd Adam

4.       Eschatological

1.       Gen 29 And the LORD God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground--trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

2.       And the LORD God said, "The man has now become like one of us, knowing good and evil. He must not be allowed to reach out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever." 23 So the LORD God banished him from the Garden of Eden to work the ground from which he had been taken. 24 After he drove the man out, he placed on the east side of the Garden of Eden cherubim and a flaming sword flashing back and forth to guard the way to the tree of life.

3.       Rev 2:7 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes, I will give the right to eat from the tree of life, which is in the paradise of God.

4.       Rev 22:2 down the middle of the great street of the city. On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations. 3 No longer will there be any curse. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his servants will serve him. 4

5.       REV 22:14 "Blessed are those who wash their robes, that they may have the right to the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city. 15 Outside are the dogs, those who practice magic arts, the sexually immoral, the murderers, the idolaters and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.

6.       19 And if anyone takes words away from this book of prophecy, God will take away from him his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book.

7. From where then comes this depraved nature of man?

From the fall and disobedience of our first parents, Adam and Eve, in Paradise,1 whereby our nature became so corrupt that we are all conceived and born in sin.2

1 Genesis 3 (all). Romans 5:12,18,19. 2 Psalm 51:5 * Psalm 14:2,3.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Patristic and Medieval View of Sin

2.       Whatever Became of Sin?

3.       The Moral and Legal (forensic) Nature of Sin

2.       The Source & Place of Sin (Gen 3)

1.       The original will to sin

2.       God's Temple

3.       The Imputation of Sin (Rom 5.12-21)

1.       Adam for us

2.       We in Adam

4.       The Consequences of Sin (Rom 1-3; Eph 2.1-4; Rom 3.23; 6.23)

1.       Corruption in nature

2.       Universal pravity

5.       Conclusion

1.       Our lost estate

2.       Our Lost Consciousness of the gravity of sin

3.       Our lost consciousness of the legal implications of sin.

8. But are we so depraved, that we are wholly incapable of any good and prone to all evil?

Yes,1 unless we are born again by the Spirit of God.2

1 John 3:6; Genesis 6:5; Job 14:4; Isaiah 53:6. 2 John 3:5. * Genesis 8:21. * 2 Corinthians 3:5. * Romans 7:18. * Jeremiah 17:9.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Remonstrants on Sin (Arminian Articles);

2.       The Revivalists on Sin;

3.       "Regeneration" Before and After Dort;

4.       Modernity on Sin.

2.       The Remedy for the Spiritual Effects of Sin (Ez 36:24-7; 37:1-10)

1.       "Clean Water and You Will Be Clean;"

2.       The Spirit and Dry Bones

3.       The Spirit of Regeneration (John 3:3-8; 2 Cor 3:6).

1.       "Born of the Spirit" and "Spirit and Water;"

2.       "Spirit and Letter" and "Law and Gospel."

4.       III. The Means of Regeneration (Rom 10:5-15)

1.       The Preaching of the Word (HC 65)

2.       Word and Spirit

9. Does not God then do injustice to man by requiring of him in His Law that which he cannot perform?

No, for God so made man that he could perform it,1 but man, through the instigation of the devil, by willful disobedience deprived himself and all his posterity of those divine gifts.2

1 Ephesians 4:24. 2 Romans 5:12.

10. Will God suffer such disobedience and apostasy to go unpunished?

By no means,1 but He is terribly displeased with our inborn as well as our actual sins, and will punish them in just judgment in time and eternity, as He has declared: "Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the Book of the Law to do them."2

1 Hebrews 9:27. 2 Deuteronomy 27:26; Galatians 3:10; * Romans 1:18. * Matthew 25:41.

11. Is then God not also merciful?

God is indeed merciful,1 but He is likewise just;2 His justice therefore requires that sin which is committed against the most high Majesty of God, be also punished with extreme, that is, with everlasting punishment both of body and soul.

1 Exodus 34:6,7. 2 Exodus 20:5. Psalm
5:5,6. II Corinthians 6:14-16. * Revelation 14:11.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Justice of God's Law

2.       Before and After the Fall

3.       Balancing Divine Attributes: Mercy, Justice; Immutability and Simplicity

2.       Is God Unjust?

1.       Job 40:2

2.       Rom 9:14-23

3.       Our Created State

1.       Gen 1:26-8; 2:25

2.       Eph 4:24; able to sin, able not to sin.

3.       The Instigation of the Devil

4.       The Penalty of Disobedience

1.       Rom 6:23

2.       James 1:13-5

5.       Inborn & Actual

1.       Ps 51:5; Rom 5:12 ; Jn 9:34

2.       Rom 3:9-18

6.       Time and Eternity

1.       Ps 39:11; Rom 1:18

2.       Heb 9:27

7.       C. Dt 27:26; Gal 3:10

8.       God is Merciful

1.       "Showing Mercy to a Thousand Generations" (Ex 20:6)

2.       His name is "Compassionate, Gracious, Slow to Anger" (Ex 34:6-7)

9.       God is Just

1.       Ex 20:5 "I am a jealous God".

2.       Ex 34:7 "He does not leave the guilty unpunished"

3.       Sin Must Be Punished

1.       Mt 25:45-6 "least of these"

2.       Gen 2:17

Part 2: Grace (Gospel)

12. Since then by the righteous judgment of God we deserve temporal and eternal punishment, how may we escape this punishment and be again received into favor?

God wills that His justice be satisfied;1 therefore we must make full satisfaction to the same, either by ourselves or by another.2

1 Exodus 20:5. Exodus 23:7. 2 Romans 8:3,4.

13. Can we ourselves make this satisfaction.

By no means, on the contrary, we daily increase our guilt.1

1 Job 9:2,3. Job 15:15,16. Matthew 6:12. * Matthew 16:26.

14. Can any mere creature make satisfaction for us?

None, for first, God will not punish any other creature for the sin which man committed;1 and further, no mere creature can sustain the burden of God's eternal wrath against sin2 and redeem others from it.

1 Hebrews 2:14-18. 2 Psalm 130:3.

1.       Introduction

1.       Balancing Divine Attributes (simplicity, immutability, justice & mercy)

2.       Appreciating Grace in the Light of Justice

2.       God's Justice Will Be Satisfied

1.       Ex 20:5 "Punishing the children".

2.       Ex 23:7 "I will not acquit the guilty."

3.       Personal Obligation

1.       Ex 34:7

2.       Ez 18.4,20

3.       2 Thess 1:8-10

4.       Our Inability

1.       Ps 130.3 "If you keep a list"

2.       Rom 3.9-20

5.       The Inability of Creatures

1.       Heb 2:14-18

2.       Heb 10:4

6.       Our Substitute

1.       Rom 8:3-4

2.       Rom 5:8

15. What kind of a mediator and redeemer then must he seek?

One who is a true1 and righteous man,2 and yet more powerful than all creatures, that is, One who is also true God.3

1 I Corinthians 15:21,22,25,26. 2 Jeremiah 33:16. Isaiah 53:11. II Corinthians 5:21. Hebrews 7:15,16. 3 Isaiah 7:14. Hebrews 7:26

16. Why must he be a true and righteous man?

Because the justice of God requires1 that the same human nature which has sinned should make satisfaction for sin, but one who is himself a sinner, cannot satisfy for others.2

1 Romans 5:15. 2 Isaiah 53:3-5.

17. Why must he also be true God?

That by the power of His Godhead He might bear in His manhood the burden of God's wrath,1 and so obtain for2 and restore to us righteousness and life.3

1 Isaiah 53:8. Acts 2:24. 2 John 3:16. Acts 20:28. 3 I John 1:2.

18. But who now is that Mediator, who in one person is true God and also a true and righteous man?

Our Lord Jesus Christ,1 who is freely given unto us for complete redemption and righteousness.2

1 Matthew 1:23. I Timothy 3:16. Luke 2:11. 2 I Corinthians 1:30. * Acts 4:12.

1.       Introduction

1.       Two Natures of Christ

1.       Lutheran

2.       Reformed

2.       Mediator and Redeemer

1.       Mediator: 1 Tim 2:25; Heb 8:6; 9:15; 12:24

2.       Redeemer: Goel (Isa 41:14)

3.       True & Righteous Man as Substitute

1.       1 Cor 15:21-6

2.       Jer 33:16; Isa 53:11

3.       Rom 5:15

4.       Isa 53:3-5

4.       True God As Sin-bearer

1.       Isa 7:14

2.       Heb 7:26

3.       Isa 53:8; Acts 2:24

4.       Jn 3:16; 1 Jn 1:2

5.       Who?

1.       Mt 1:23

2.       1 Cor 1:30

19. From where do you know this?

From the Holy Gospel, which God Himself revealed first in Paradise;1 afterwards proclaimed by the holy Patriarchs2 and Prophets, and foreshadowed by the sacrifices and other ceremonies of the law;3 and finally fulfilled by His well-beloved Son.

1 Genesis 3:15. 2 Genesis 22:18. Genesis 49:10,11. Romans 1:2. Hebrews 1:1. Acts 3:22-24. Acts 10:43. 3 John 5:46. Hebrews 10:7. 4 Romans 10:4. Galatians 4:4,5. * Hebrews 10:1.

20. Are all men then saved by Christ as they perished in Adam?

No, only those who by true faith are ingrafted into Him and receive all His benefits.1

1 John 1:12,13. I Corinthians 15:22. Psalm 2:12. Romans 11:20. Hebrews 4:2,3. Hebrews 10:39

21. What is true faith?

True faith is not only a certain knowledge whereby I hold for truth all that God has revealed to us in His Word;1 but also a hearty trust,2 which the Holy Spirit 3 works in me by the Gospel,4 that not only to others, but to me also, forgiveness of sins, everlasting righteousness and salvation are freely given by God,5 merely of grace, only for the sake of Christ's merits.6

1 James 1:6. 2 Romans 4:16-18. 3 II Corinthians 4:13. Philippians 1:19,20. 4 Romans 1:16. Romans 10:17. 5 Hebrews 11:1,2. Romans 1:17. 6 Ephesians 2:7-9. Romans 3:24,25. Galatians 2:16. * Acts 10:43.

1.       Introduction

1.       Objective v. Subjective

2.       Public v. Private

3.       Finished v. Unfinished

4.       Christ-Centered v. self-centered.

2.       The Source of Saving Knowledge

1.       The History of Salvation

2.       In Scripture

1.       In Paradise

2.       In the Patriarchs

3.       In the Prophets

4.       In Types & Shadows (Col 2.17; Heb 8.5)

3.       The Extent of Saving Knowledge

1.       Universalism v. Particularism

2.       The "All" in Adam v. "Many" in Christ (Rom 5.12-21)

3.       The Necessity of True Faith

4.       The Necessity of Union with Christ

4.       The Sum of Saving Knowledge

1.       Cognitio, Assensus et Fiducia

2.       God's Word: The Beginning of Knowledge

3.       Assurance

4.nbsp;      Grounded in the History of Redemption

5.       Applied by the Holy Spirit

22. What then is necessary for a Christian to believe?

All that is promised us in the Gospel,1 which the articles of our catholic, undoubted Christian faith teach us in sum.

1 John 20:31. Matthew 28:20. * II Peter 1:21. * II Timothy 3:15

23. What are these articles?

I believe in God the Father, almighty, maker of heaven and earth. And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Spirit , born of the virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried; He descended into hell; the third day He rose from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father almighty, from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit , the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting.

24. How are these Articles divided?

Into three parts: the first is of God the Father and our creation; the second of God the Son and our redemption; the third, of God the Holy Spirit and our sanctification.1

1 I Peter 1:2. * I John 5:7.

1.       Introduction

1.       Credo, "I Believe"

2.       Credimus, "We believe"

3.       Confessions in the Scriptures (Deut 6.4; 1 Tim 1.15; 3.1, 16; 4.9; 2 Tim 2.11; Titus 3.8)

4.       12 Articles

5.       The Organization

2.       The Object of Faith

1.       Everything Promised Us in the Gospel

1.       What is the Gospel?

2.       What is Promised Us in the Gospel?

3.       What is Not Promised Us in the Gospel?

2.       The Ground of the Gospel

1.       GodÂ’s Justice

2.       ChristÂ’s Obedience

3.       The Substance of the Faith

1.       The Articles (of the Creed)

1.       Its History

2.       Its Utility

3.       Its Questions

4.       Holy

1.       Catholic Faith

1.       In All Times and Places (All that is Roman is not catholic)

2.       Received Not Invented/Discovered

2.       Undoubted

1.       The Authority of Creeds Relative to Scripture

2.       Assurance of Faith and Assurance of the Faith

5.       The Trinitarian Structure of the Faith

1.       The Three Parts of the Faith

2.       Economy of Creation and Redemption

1.       Father-Creation (Law/Guilt)

2.       Son-Redemption (Gospel/Grace)

3.       Spirit-Sanctification (Gratitude)

25. Since there is but one Divine Being,1 why do you speak of three persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit?2

1Because God has so revealed Himself in His Word,2 that these three distinct persons are the one, true, eternal God.

1 Deuteronomy 6:4. 2 Isaiah 61:1. Psalm 110:1. Matthew 3:16,17 Matthew 28:19. I John 5:7.

1.       Introduction

1.       A. The History of the Doctrine of the Trinity

2.       The Council of Nicea

3.       The Athanasian Creed

1.       Contra Unitarianism

2.       Contra Modalism

3.       Contra Adoptionism

4.       Objections to the Doctrine of the Trinity

5.       The Necessity of the Doctrine of the Trinity

6.       Apprehension v. Comprehension

7.       One Substance in Three Subsistences

2.       We Believe One Tri-Personal God

1.       One (Gen 1.1; Deut 6.4)

2.       Tri-Personal (Matt 28.18-20; 2 Cor 13.14)

3.       Perichoresis

3.       Father (John 6.31)

4.       Son (Ps 110; Gen 16.9)

5.       Holy Spirit (1 Peter 1.10-12)

26. What do you believe when you say: "I believe in God the Father, Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth"?

That the eternal Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who of nothing made heaven and earth with all that in them is,1 who likewise upholds and governs the same by His eternal counsel and providence,2 is for the sake of Christ, His Son, my God and my Father,3 in whom I so trust, as to have no doubt that He will provide me with all things necessary for body and soul;4 and further, that whatever evil He sends upon me in this vale of tears, He will turn to my good;5 for He is able to do it, being almighty God,6 and willing also, being a faithful Father.7

1 Genesis 1:31. Psalm 33:6. * Colossians 1:16. * Hebrews 11:3. 2 Psalm 104:2-5. Matthew 10:30. Hebrews 1:3. Psalm 115:3. * Acts 17:24,25. 3 John 1:12. Romans 8:15. Galatians 4:5-7. Ephesians 1:5. * Ephesians 3:14-16. * Matthew 6:8. 4 Psalm 55:22. Matthew 6:25,26. (See also Luke 12:22-24). Psalm 90:1,2. 5 Romans 8:28. * Acts 17:27,28. 6 Romans 10:12. 7 Matthew 7:9-11. * Numbers 23:19.

1.       Introduction

1.       Economy of Creation and Providence

1.       Creation From Nothing (ex nihilo);

2.       Creation Continued (continuata).

2.       GodÂ’s Will

1.       Counsel (preceptive);

2.       Providence (decretive)

2.       The Father of Our Savior

1.       Son From All Eternity (John 1.18)

2.       Eternal Glory (John 17.5, 24).

3.       For ChristÂ’s Sake (propter Christum)

1.       Our God and Father (Rom 1.7; 15.6)

2.       My Father (Gal 4.6)

4.       The Object of Trust

1.       Without Doubt (Ps 55.22)

2.       Provision for Body and Soul (Matt 6.25-26)

5.       The Mystery of Providence (Rom 8.28;

1.       Whatever Evil He SendsÂ…"

2.       Evil, Suffering and the Cross

3.       Christ: The Wisdom of God (1 Cor 1.24)

4.       Sufferings and Endurance (Rom 5.3-5)

6.       Our Faithful Father

1.       Good Things to Those Who Ask (Matt 7.9-11)

2.       The Giver of All Good (Ps 104.1-28)

27. What do you understand by the providence of God?

The almighty, everywhere present power of God,1 whereby, as it were by His hand, He upholds heaven and earth with all creatures,2 and so governs them that herbs and grass, rain and drought, fruitful and barren years, meat and drink,3 health and sickness, 4 riches and poverty,5 indeed, all things come not by chance, but by His Fatherly hand.

1 Acts 17:25,26. 2 Hebrews 1:3. 3 Jeremiah 5:24. *Acts 14:17. 4 John 9:3. 5 Proverbs 22:2. * Psalm 103:19. * Romans 5:3-5a.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Modern Doctrine of God

1.       Transcendence

2.       Immanence

3.       Unitarianism

4.       Process Theology

2.       The Neo-Evangelical Doctrine of God

1.       Biblicism

2.       Open Theism

3.       The Reformed Doctrine of God

1.       Sola Scriptura

2.       Accommodation"as it were"

2.       The Biblical Doctrine of God

1.       Sovereignty "The king’s heart" (Prov 21.1; Rom 9)

2.       Immensity (Eph 1.23; Jer 23.24)

3.       Infinity (Acts 17.27)

4.       Simplicity (Dt 6.4; Ex 3.14)

5.       Immutability (Nu 23.19; Mal 3.6)

6.       Spirit (Jn 4.24)

3.       God's Government of Creation

1.       "Upholding the Universe" (Heb 1.3)

2.       "In the Beginning" (Gen 1.1)

3.       "Let us Fear" (Jer 5.24)

4.       Common Grace "Rain on the Just and Unjust" (Matt 5.45)

28. What does it profit us to know that God created, and by his providence upholds all things?

That we may be patient in adversity,1 thankful in prosperity,2 and for what is future have good confidence in our faithful God and Father, that no creature shall separate us from His love,3 since all creatures are so in His hand, that without His will they cannot so much as move.4

1 Romans 5:3. James 1:3. Job 1:21. 2 Deuteronomy 8:10. I Thessalonians 5:18. 3 Romans 8:35,38,39 4 Job 1:12. Acts 17:25-28. Proverbs 21:1. * Psalm 71:7. * II Corinthians 1:10.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Benefits of Knowing God and his Providence

2.       The Benefit of Providence Itself

3.       The Source of Virtue

2.       Patience

1.       In Adversity

2.       Suffering in Scripture

1.       Rom 5.3; James 1.3;

2.       Job 1.21.

3.       Thankfulness

1.       In Prosperity (Dt 8.10)

2.       In Adversity /span>

1.       1 Thess 5.18;

2.       Eph 5.20;

3.       2 Cor 1.3-7.

4.       Confidence

1.       For the Future (Rom 8.35-9)

2.       In the God of History (Ps 66.5-13)

3.       In Our Faithful Father (Mt 6.9)

4.       In Our Sovereign God (Dt 7.7) /span>

29. Why is the Son of God called JESUS, that is, Savior?1

Because He saves us from our sins,1 and because salvation is not to be sought or found in any other.2
1Matthew 1:21. Hebrews 7:25. 2 Acts 4:12. * Luke 2:10,11.

30. Do those also believe in the only Savior Jesus, who seek their salvation and welfare of saints, of themselves, or anywhere else?

No, although they make their boast of Him, yet in deeds they deny the only Savior Jesus,1 for either Jesus is not a complete Savior, or they who by true faith receive this Savior, must have in Him all that is necessary to their salvation.2

1 I Corinthians 1:13. I Corinthians 1:30,31. Galatians 5:4. 2 Isaiah 9:7. Colossians 1:20. Colossians 2:10. John 1:16. * Matthew 23.28.

1.       Introduction

1.       Christ's Uniqueness v. Roman Syncretism and Synergism

2.       Christian Exclusivism in a Pluralistic Age

2.       The Son of God Saves His People

1.       No Other Name (Acts 4.12)

2.       For Our Sins

3.       Able to Save (Heb 7.25)

3.       Profession v. Possession of Jesus

1.       The Temptation of "Jesus Plus." (Gal 2.15; Gal 5.4)

2.       All Christianity is Not the Same;

3.       One Savior, One Salvation (1 Cor 1.13, 20-31;

4.       The Simple Object of Faith

1.       The Only Savior Jesus

2.       Hence Sola fide is simple, passive, not complex and active as instrument of justification;

3.       Complex Instrument = Two Objects

 31. Why is He called Christ, that is Anointed?

Because He is ordained of God the Father and anointed with the Holy Spirit 1 to be our chief Prophet and Teacher,2 who has fully revealed to us the secret counsel and will of God concerning our redemption;3 and our only High Priest,4 who by the one sacrifice of His body, has redeemed us, and ever lives to make intercession for us with the Father;5 and our eternal King, who governs us by His Word and Spirit and defends and preserves us in the redemption obtained for us.6

1 Hebrews 1:9. 2 Deuteronomy 18:15. Acts 3:22. 3 John 1:18. John 15:15. 4 Psalm 110:4. Hebrews 7:21. 5 Romans 5:9,10. 6 Psalm 2:6. Luke 1:33. Matthew 28:18. * Isaiah 61:1,2. * I Peter 2:24. * Revelation 19:16.

1.       Introduction

1.       Parsing the Names and Title of the Savior.

2.       Jesus = Yahweh is salvation. Later form is Yeshua or Iesua then Iesous.

3.       Christ = Mashiach.

1.       Sam 2.10, 35

2.       Ps 2.2

3.       Dan 9.25-6

2.       Ordained By The Father

1.       The "Covenant of Redemption" (pactum salutis)

1.       Ps 110.4

2.       Acts 3.25 ("covenant arranged"); Heb 9.16-17 (testamentary arrangement); Lk 22.29 (covenant/kingdom arranged).

2.       Anointed

1.       Matt 3.16-17

2.       Heb 1.9

3.       Prophet

1.       Deut 18.15; Acts 3.22

2.       John 1.18

4.       Priest

1.       Heb 2.17; 3.1; 4.15

2.       Heb 7.21

5.       King

1.       Ps 2.6; Luke 1.33

2.       Acts 2.34-6

32. But why are you called a Christian?

Because by faith I am a member of Christ1 and thus a partaker of His anointing,2 in order that I also may confess His Name,3 may present myself a living sacrifice of thankfulness to Him,4 and that with a free conscience I may fight against sin and the devil in this life,5 and hereafter in eternity reign with Him over all creatures.6

1 Acts 11:26; 1 John 2:27; * 1 John 2:20. 2 Acts 2:17; 3 Mark 8:38. 4 Romans 12:1; Revelation 5:8,10; 1 Peter 2:9. Revelation 1:6; 5 1 Timothy 1:18,19; 6 2 Timothy 2:12; * Ephesians 6:12; * Revelation 3:21.

1.       Introduction

1.       A. Union with Christ.

1.       Through Faith (Rom 3:28; 5.1)

2.       By the Spirit (1 Cor 6.15; Rom 6.8; Gal 2.19; Eph 2.5)

2.       "Christian"

1.       In Antioch (Acts 11.26)

2.       Paul & Agrippa (Acts 26.28)

3.       Suffering as a Christian (1 Pet 4.16)

3.       A Partaker of Christ's Anointing

0.       In the Spirit (Acts 2.17)

1.       In God's "Yes" (2 Cor 1.18-22)

2.       Knowing Christ (1 Jn 2.19-21)

4.       For Three Purposes

0.       To Confess His Name as a Prophet

1.       Before Men (Matt 10.32)

2.       Jesus is the Word and Messiah in the flesh (1 Jn 2.23; 4:15)

3.       Faithful Sayings (1 Tim 1.15; 3.1; 4.9; 2 Tim 2.11; Titus 3.8)

1.       Make Sacrifice as a Priest

1.       A Living Sacrifice (Rom 12.1)

2.       Gifts (Phil 4.18)

3.       Praise (Heb 13.15)

2.       Rule as a King

1.       With a free conscience (Heb 10.22; 1 Cor 10.27-9)

2.       Fight Against Sin & Satan (Rom 6.14; 1 Cor 15.57)

3.       Reign in Eternity (1 Tim 2.12)

33. Why is He called God's "only begotten Son", since we also are the children of God?

Because Christ alone is the eternal, natural Son of God;1 but we are children of God by adoption, through grace, for His sake.2

1 John 1:14,18. 2 Romans 8:15-17. Ephesians 1:5,6. * I John 3:1.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Early Christological Heresies

2.       The Trinitarian Controversy

3.       The Modern Translation Questions

1.       "only begotten son, Isaac" (Gen 22.2)

2.       "only begotten Son" (John 1.14)

3.       "Only begotten God" (John 1.18)

2.       Eternal Sonship

1.       Ps 110

2.       Heb 1.1-13

3.       Natural Son of God

1.       Matt 8.29; 14.33; 27.54

2.       John 20.31

3.       Heb 7.3

4.       1 John 4.15

4.       Children By Adoption (Rom 8.15-17; Eph 1.5-6; 1 John 3.1)

1.       By Grace

2.       For His Sake

3.       Adoption in the Order of Salvation (ordo salutis)

34. Why do you call Him "our Lord"?

Because, not with gold or silver, but with His precious blood, He has redeemed and purchased us, body and soul, from sin and from all the power of the devil, to be His own.1

1 1 Peter 1:18,19; 2:9; 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23. * Acts 2:36. * Titus 2:14; * Colossians 1:14.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Lordship Debate.

1.       In the Reformation

1.       Legislator (Rome - Old Law v. New Law)

2.       Antinomian/Neonomian Controversies (1550Â’s; 1640Â’s)

2.       Today

1.       Zane Hodges v. John MacArthur

2.       Norman Shepherd et al v. The Gospel

2.       Yahweh/Kurios

1.       Gen 2.4-7; Ex 3.15

2.       Mt 1.20,22,24; Mk 2.28; Acts 2.21,25,34.36,39.

3.       Bought with a Price

1.       1 Cor 6.20

2.       1 Cor 7.23

4.       With His Blood

1.       With His Life

1.       Gen 9.6; Heb 10; 9;

2.       Acts 2.28; Rom 3.25; 5.9; Eph 1.7; 2.13; Rev 1.5; 5.9; 7.14; 12.11; 19.13; 1 Cor 10.16; 11.27; Heb 13.12, 20; 1 Pet 1.2, 19; 1 Jn 1.7; 5.6-8.

2.       Not With Silver or Gold

1.       1 Pet 1.18-21

2.       Ex 31.4; 35.5; Ezra 1.4-6?; Zeph 1:18.

5.       From All the Power of the Devil

1.       Mt 12.22-32

2.       Acts 10.38; 26.18

3.       Heb 2.14

4.       2 Thess 3.3; 1 Jn 5.18-19

35. What is the meaning of "conceived by the Holy Spirit , born of the Virgin Mary"?

That the eternal Son of God, who is1 and continues true and eternal God,2 took upon Himself the very nature of man, of the flesh and blood of the Virgin Mary,3 by the operation of the Holy Spirit ;4 so that He might also be the true seed of David,5 like His brothers in all things,6 sin excepted.7

1 John 1:1. Romans 1:3,4. 2 Romans 9:5 3 Galatians 4:4. John 1:14. 4 Matthew 1:18-20. Luke 1:35. 5 Psalm 132:11. 6 Philippians 2:7. 7 Hebrews 4:15. * 1 John 5:20.

1.       Introduction

1.       Against the Dixie-Cup Christology

1.       Eye for eye - no other mediator;

2.       A genuine mediator.

2.       B. The Virgin Conception of Christ

1.       A Biblical Doctrine (Isa 7.14; Lk 1.27, 34);

2.       An Historic Doctrine.

2.       The Eternal Son

1.       Is True and Eternal God;

1.       John 1.1,18;

2.       Romans 1.3-4;

3.       Romans 9.5.

2.       Continues the Same

1.       Romans 9.5;

2.       2 Peter 1.1

3.       True Man

1.       Body Prepared by the Spirit

1.       Luke 1.35;

2.       Matthew 1.18-20;

3.       In fulfillment of the covenant of redemption.

2.       True Man

1.       Galatians 4.4;

2.       John 1.14;

3.       1 Tim 2.5;

4.       Hebrews 2.6-8.

3.       Of the Virgin Mary

1.       Ex virigine Mariae (ApostlesÂ’ Creed; Definition of Chalcedon);

2.       Anabaptist Christology

4.       David’s True Seed

1.       King of Israel

1.       Ps 132.11;

2.       Ps 110;

3.       Matthew 1.1,14 (Son of David);

4.       Acts 2.43,36;

5.       2 Timothy 2.8.

2.       The Seed

1.       Genesis 3.15; 12.7;

2.       Galatians 3.15-18.

5.       Like His Brothers

1.       Phil 2.7;

2.       Hebrews 2.16-18 (like us);

6.       Sin Excepted

1.       Jesus’ Impeccability

2.       Hebrews 4.15

3.       1 John 5.20

36. What benefit do you receive from the holy conception and birth of Christ?

That He is our Mediator,1 and with His innocence and perfect holiness covers, in the sight of God, my sin, wherein I was conceived.2

1 Hebrews 2:16,17. 2 Psalm 32:1. * I John 1:9.

1.       Introduction

1.       The First Benefit (justification)

2.       The Second Benefit (sanctification)

2.       Mediator

1.       Exodus 32.30-34;

2.       HC 15, 18;

3.       1 Timothy 2:25; Hebrews 2.16-17; 8:6; 9:15; 12:24.

3.       Innocence

1.       Leviticus 22.21;

2.       Luke 23.47;

3.       Hebrews 7.26.

4.       Perfect Holiness

1.       Leviticus 11.44-45;

2.       Exodus 19.6;

3.       1 Peter 1.15,16; 2.9.

5.       Original Sin

1.       Genesis 2;

2.       Psalm 32.1; 51.5;

3.       Romans 5.12-21.

6.       Imputation

1.       Genesis 15.6;

2.       Leviticus 17.4;

3.       Psalm 32.2;

4.       Psalm 106.31;

5.       Isaiah 53.4;

6.       Romans 2:26; 4.1-12, 22-25; 9:8; 2 Corinthians 5.19-21; Galatians 3.6-14

7.       Logizomai to reckon, impute, credit, regard consider.

37. What do you understand by the word "suffered"?

That all the time He lived on earth, but especially at the end of His life, He bore, in body and soul, the wrath of God against the sin of the whole human race;1 in order that by His passion, as the only atoning sacrifice,2 He might redeem our body and soul from everlasting damnation, and obtain for us the grace of God, righteousness and eternal life.

1 I Peter 2:24. Isaiah 53:12. 2 I John 2:2. I John 4:10. Romans 3:25,26. * Psalm 22:14-16. * Matthew 26:38. * Romans 5:6.

38. Why did He suffer "under Pontius Pilate" as judge?

That He, being innocent, might be condemned by the temporal judge,1 and thereby deliver us from the severe judgment of God, to which we were exposed.2

1 Acts 4:27,28. Luke 23:13-15. John 19:4. 2 Psalm 69:4. II Corinthians 5:21. * Matthew 27:24.

39. Is there anything more in His having been "crucified" than if He had suffered some other death?

Yes, for thereby I am assured that He took upon Himself the curse which lay upon me;1 because the death of the cross was accursed of God.2

1 Galatians 3:13,14. 2 Deuteronomy 21:22,23. * Philippians 2:8.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Theology of the Cross v. The Theology of Glory

2.       Active and Passive Obedience

2.       All His Life: Jesus Active Obedience

1.       Lev 18.5; Lk 10.28; Rom 10.5-6; Dt 27.21, 26; Gal 3.12-14;

2.       Romans 5.19 - "by one man's obedience;"

3.       Hebrews 5.8 - "He learned obedience;"

4.       Obedient unto death - Phil 2.8.

3.       His Bearing God’s Wrath

1.       In Body and Soul - Matt 26.36; John 12:27-31;

2.       On the Shameful Cross (Q. 39) Dt 21.23; Gal 3.13.

3.       As the Atoning Sacrifice (See www.oceansideurc.org - articles) -- sufficient/efficient.

4.       The End of His Life: Jesus’ Passive Obedience

1.       From Passio, ire "to suffer"

2.       Mk 14.65

3.       Condemned By Pontius Pilate (Mark 15.1-15)

5.       To Redeem Us

1.       From Severe Judgment (Jn 3.17-18; Rom 8.1;

2.       Everlasting Damnation (Isa 66.24; Mt 10.28; 24.51; Heb 6.2; Mt 23.33; 2 Pe 2.3; 2 Thess 1:9; 2.12; Jude 6-7.

6.       To Earn Grace for Us

1.       The Second Adam (WCF 7.2. "perfect, personal and perpetual obedience;" Rom 5.12-21)

2.       Christ's Merits - HC 21, 60, 63, 84, 86; BC 22, 23, 24, 35. CD RE 1.3; 2.7; RE 2.1; RE 2.3; RE 2.4; RE 2.6; 5.8; WCF 16.5; 17.2; WLC Q.55; Q. 174; Q. 193.

40. Why was it necessary for Christ to suffer "death"?

Because the justice and truth1 of God required, that satisfaction for our sins could be made in no other way than by the death of the Son of God.2

1 Genesis 2:17. 2 Hebrews 2:9. * Romans 6:23.

41. Why was He "buried"?

To show thereby that He was really dead.1

1 Matthew 27:59,60. John 19:38-42. Acts 13:29.

42. Since then Christ died for us, why must we also die?

Our death is not a satisfaction for our sin, but only a dying to sin and an entering into eternal life.1

1 John 5:24. Philippians 1:23. Romans 7:24,25.

43. What further benefit do we receive from the sacrifice and death of Christ on the cross?

That thereby our old man is crucified, slain and buried1 with Him, that so the evil lusts of the flesh may no more reign in us,2 but that we may offer ourselves unto Him a sacrifice of thanksgiving.3

1 Romans 6:6-8. Colossians 2:12. 2 Romans 6:12. 3 Romans 12:1. * II Corinthians 5:15.

1.       Introduction

1.       "Comfort," "Certainty" and the Atonement in the HC

2.       The Historical Reality of Jesus' Death

2.       God's Justice and Truth

1.       "The day you eat therefore…". Genesis 2.17; Rom 6.23.

2.       The covenantal character of God's Word: It Cannot be Broken (John 10:35)

3.       The Necessity of "Satisfaction"

1.       Consequent Necessity: God having willed to save us, God the Son had to become incarnate (Heb 2.9-10); "it is fitting;" Rev 13.8; Mk 8.31; Lk 24.36; "it is necessary."

2.       God's will to save is what counts, not our "will" to cooperate (Jn 1.13; Eph 1.1-15).

3.       Salvation is not a mere possibility. Jesus said: "It is finished" (Jn 19:30)

3.       Jesus Really Died

1.       Contra the "Swoon" theory

2.       Contra Gnostics

3.       According to the Scriptures (Mt 27.59, 60; Jn 19.33,38-42; Acts 13.29).

4.       Dying to Sin

1.       Dying "to" v. Dying "for."

2.       Ending the power of sin over us

1.       Crucified with Christ (Gal 2.20)

2.       Buried and raised with him (Col 2.12)

3.       Freed from sin (Rom 6.6-10)

4.       To live "to" Christ (Rom 12.1-2; Phil 1.21)

3.       To Live is Christ

1.       Begun already by faith (Jn 5.24)

2.       To die is gain (Phil 1.23)

3.       Rescued from this "body of death" (Rom 7.24, 25).

44. Why is it added: "He descended into hell"?

That in my greatest temptations I may be assured that Christ my lord, by His inexpressible anguish, pains and terrors, which He suffered in His soul on the cross and before, has redeemed me from the anguish and torment of hell.1

1 Isaiah 53:10. Matthew 27:46. * Psalm 18:5. * Psalm 116:3.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Apostles’ Creed

1.       150-180 AD

2.       Roman Baptismal Formula

2.       The Descendit Clause

1.       Ad infernos/inferna

2.       Added ca. AD 390

3.       Reappeared AD 430 and AD 570.

4.       A Synonym for "buried" (et sepultus)

5.       Added to "buried" by AD 570. Standardized by AD 700

2.       He Descended into Hell

1.       History of Exegesis of 1 Peter 3.18-20

1.       Roman View: To conquer Satan and deliver the dead from hell;

2.       Lutheran/Anglican: to announce victory/preach the gospel.

3.       The Reformed view:

1.       (v.18) Made alive by/in the (Holy) Spirit

2.       (v.19) "in whom" not "when" he "went to the spirits now in prisonÂ…" (2 Pet 3.7; Jude 6. 14-16)

3.       (v.20) "to the ones who were then being disobedient"

4.       "in the days of Noah"

5.       Through Noah the preacher of righteousness (2 Pet 2.5)

3.       He Suffered Hell

1.       For us (pro nobis)

2.       Before the Cross (Isa 52-53)

3.       On the Cross (Mt 27.46)

4.       In the Grave (Ps 18.5; 116.3)

4.       We Are Redeemed From Anguish

1.       Christ for us even in the grave

2.       The Sanctified Grave

3.       The Sting Removed (1 Cor 15.55-56)

 45. What benefit do we receive from the "resurrection" of Christ?

First, by His resurrection He has overcome death, that He might make us partakers of the righteousness which He has obtained for us by His death.1 Secondly, by His power we are also now raised up to a new life.2 Thirdly, the resurrection of Christ is to us a sure pledge of our blessed resurrection.3

1 I Corinthians 15:15,17,54-55. Romans 4:25. I Peter 1:3,4,21. 2 Romans 6:4. Colossians 3:1-4. Ephesians 2:5. 3 I Corinthians 15:12. Romans 8:11. * I Corinthians 15:20,21.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Significance of the Resurrection

1.       For His Vindication (Mt 17.23)

2.       In the History of Salvation (Acts 7.55; 1 Cor 15.4)

3.       For Christianity (1 Cor 15.14-19)

2.       The Reality of the Resurrection

1.       ChristÂ’s Humanity (Matt 28:6)

1.       His bodily absence ("he is not here;" "as you saw him go" (Acts 1.11);

2.       The Presence of the Spirit (John 14.4, 25)

2.       The Tomb Visitors (Mk 16.6; Jn 20.6-7)

3.       Raised with Christ (Matthew 27:52-53)

3.       Union with Christ (Rom 6.8; Eph 2.5)

1.       Established and grounded in the pactum salutis;

2.       Realised in ChristÂ’s Obedience as our substitute;

3.       Subjectively realized sola fide;

4.       "Intimate, vital, spiritual union, between Christ and his people, by virtue of which Christ the source, and principle of life, salvation and beatitude."

2.       The First Benefit

1.       Victory Over Death (Hos 13.14; 1 Cor 15.55)

2.       Partakers of His Righteousness

1.       Which he earned for us (Rom 5.19)

2.       By his death (Rom 5.6-8; 1 Pe 3.18)

3.       Through faith (Phil 3.9)

3.       The Second Benefit

1.       By His Power

1.       The Spirit of Resurrection (Rom 1:4; 8.11)

2.       The Spirit of Power (Rom 15.13)

3.       The Spirit of Life (Jn 6.63; Rom 7.6; 8.2; 8.10-11; 2 Cor 3.6)

4.       The Spirit of Christ (Acts 2.17, 22; Phil 1:19; 1 Cor 15.45)

2.       The Order of Salvation (ordo salutis; Rom 8.29-30)

1.       Predestined

2.       Called

3.       Justified

4.       Sanctified

5.       Glorified

3.       Raised to New Life

1.       Seated with Christ (Col 3.1-4)

2.       To Live a New Life (Rom 6.4; 7.6)

3.       A living hope (1 Pe 1.3)

4.       Blessedness: The Third Benefit

1.       Christ the Firstborn (Rom 8.29; 1 Cor 15.21, 23; Col 1.15, 18; Rev 1.5).

2.       The Deposit (2 Cor 1.22; 5.5; Eph 1.14).

3.       Of Our Resurrection

1.       1 Cor 15 [all]

2.       Rom 8.11

46. How do you understand the words: "He ascended into heaven"?

That Christ, in the sight of His disciples, was taken up from the earth into heaven;1 and continues there in our behalf2 until He shall come again to judge the living and the dead.3

1 Acts 1:9. Matthew 26:64. Mark 16:19. Luke 24:51. 2 Hebrews 4:14. Hebrews 7:24,25. Hebrews 9:11. Romans 8:34. Ephesians 4:10. 3Acts 1:11. Matthew 24:30. * Acts 3:20,21.

47. Is Christ then not with us even unto the end of the world, as He has promised?1

Christ is true man and true God. According to His human nature He is now not on earth,2 but according to His Godhead, Majesty, Grace, and Spirit, He is at no time absent from us.3

1 Matthew 28:20. 2 Matthew 26:11. John 16:28. John 17:11. 3 John 14:17,18. John 16:13. Ephesians 4:8. * Matthew 18:20. * Hebrews 8:4.

48. Since his human nature is not present wherever His Godhead is, are not then these two natures in Christ separated from one another?

Not at all; for since the Godhead is incomprehensible and everywhere present,1 it must follow that the same is not limited with the human nature He assumed, and yet remains personally united to it.2

1 Acts 7:49. Jeremiah 23:24. 2 Colossians 2:9. John 3:13. John 11:15. Matthew 28:6. * John 1:48.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Lutheran View

2.       The Reformed View

3.       The "Communication of Properties" - What can be said of a nature can be said of the person.

4.       Calvinist "extra."

2.       In the Sight of His Disciples

1.       As You Saw Him Go (Acts 1.1-11)

1.       Spirit Baptism (v. 5)

2.       The Kingdom? (v.6-8) - Now!

3.       Looking into heaven (v.9-11)

2.       Ascending and Descending

1.       Who has gone up (Prov 30.4)

2.       No one has gone up (John 3.13)

3.       God shall arise and by his might (Ps 68 [18]).

4.       To Fill the Universe (Eph 4.7-13)

1.       Christ "descended" and "ascended" not we!

2.       Captivity captive and good gifts.

3.       Human and With Us

1.       The Trinitarian Answer

2.       Comforter, Helper, Advocate, Counselor, Paraclete (Jn 14.16-21)

3.       The Humanity and Deity

1.nbsp;      Chalcedon (AD 451) "in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistenceÂ…."

2.       Truly Absent (Jn 16.28; Mt 26.11)

3.       Truly human Mediator (Heb 12.22-24)

4.       Truly Present in his Deity, Majesty, Grace and Spirit (Mt 28.20;

4.       "Without Separation"

1.       The Attributes of God

1.       Incomprehensible (Acts 7.49)

2.       Immense (Jer 23.24)

3.       Simple (Dt 6.4)

2.       The Attributes of Man

1.       Comprehensible

2.       Local

3.       Complex (body and soul)

3.       Two Natures, One Person

1.       All the fullness (Col 2.9)

2.       God over all (Rom 9.5)

49. What benefit do we receive from Christ's ascension into heaven?

First, that He is our Advocate in the presence of His Father in Heaven.1 Secondly, that we have our flesh in heaven as a sure pledge, that He as the Head, will also take us, His members, up to Himself.2 Thirdly, that He sends us His Spirit as an earnest,3 by whose power we seek those things which are above, where Christ sits at the right hand of God, and not things on earth.4

1 I John 2:1. Romans 8:34. 2 John 14:2. John 20:17. Ephesians 2:6. 3 John 14:16. Acts 2:33. II Corinthians 5:5. 4 Colossians 3:1. * John 14:3 * Hebrews 9:24.

50. Why is it added: "And sits at the right hand of God"?

Because Christ ascended into heaven for this end, that He might there appear as the Head of His Church,1 by whom the Father governs all things.2

1 Ephesians 1:20-23. Colossians 1:18. 2 John 5:22. * I Peter 3:22. * Psalm 110:1.

51. What does this glory of Christ, our Head, profit us?

First, that by His Holy Spirit He bestows the heavenly gifts upon us, His members;1 then, that by His power He defends and preserves us against all enemies.2

1 Ephesians 4:10-12. 2 Psalm 2:9. John 10:28-30. * I Corinthians 15:25,26. * Acts 2:33.

1.       Introduction

1.       Ascension and the Two Natures

2.       Ascension and Glory

1.       Glory is "Already" for Christ.

2.       2. Glory is "Not Yet" for Us - except as we are united to him.

2.       The Triple Benefit of the Ascension

1.       Our Advocate

1.       Our Legal Representative Before the Father - The benefit of justification (1 John 2.1; Rom 8.34; Heb 9:24)

2.       Christ’s Presence with Us -Counselor/Comforter/Helper (Jn 14.6, 26; 15.26; 16.7; Acts 2.33)

2.       Our Flesh in Heaven

1.       Our Surety (Jn 14.2; 2 Cor 5.5)

2.       Our Head (1 Cor 11.3; Eph 1.22; 4.15; 5.25; Col 1.18; 2.10, 19)

3.       Our Future (Eph 2.6-7;

3.       Spirit/Pledge/Down-payment (Eph 1.13; 4.30)

1.       Christ’s Power

2.       In and For Us

3.       Drawing us to the Risen Christ

3.       The Head of the Church

1.       Christ Ascended 

1.       Who "ascended except he who descended?"((Prov 30.4; Eph 4.1-10).

2.       In a true and truly human body

2.       As Head of The Church (Jn 5.22)

1.       Not Ecclesiastical Authorities

2.       Ruling with a Rod of Iron (Ps 2.9, 27; Rev 12.5; 19.15; Jn 17.2)

3.       The Father's Vice-Regent

1.       Fulfilling the Pactum Salutis (Jn 17.4)

2.       Gathering his People (John 6.44; 17.2, 6-9;)

3.       Handing them to the Father at the end (1 Cor 15.24-8)

4.       The Twin Benefits of Christ's Glory

1.       Gifts (Eph 4.10-12)

1.       From the Holy Spirit

2.       Bestowed Freely and Sovereignly

2.       Upon Christ's Members (Rom 12.4; 1 Cor 6.15; 12.12, 18, 25, 27; Eph 2.19; 3.6; 4.25; 5.30)

1.       United to Him by Faith

2.       By the Work of the Holy Spirit

3.       Defending and Preserving Us (Jn 10.28-30)

1.       Against All Enemies

2.       Sin, the flesh and the Devil

52. What comfort is it to you, that Christ "shall come to judge the living and the dead"?

That in all my sorrows and persecutions, with uplifted head, I look for the selfsame One, who before offered Himself for me to the judgment of God, and removed all curse from me, to come as Judge from heaven,1 who shall cast all His and my enemies into everlasting condemnation,
2 but shall take me with all His chosen ones to Himself into heavenly joy and glory.3

1 Luke 21:28. Romans 8:23,24. Philippians 3:20,21. Titus 2:13. 2 II Thessalonians 1;6,10. 3 I Thessalonians 4:16-18. Matthew 25:41. * Acts 1:10,11. * Hebrews 9:28.

1.       Introduction

1.       Last Things

1.       Chilliasm

1.       Pre-Millennialism

2.       Historicism

2.       Post-Millennialism

3.       Amillennialism

2.       The Comfort of Christ's Return

1.       For the Justified "for me to the judgment of God"

2.       For the Suffering "In all my sorrows"

3.       The Certainty of Christ's Return

2.       Looking for the Savior (Lk 21.28; Phil 3.20-21; Titus 2.13)

1.       With Uplifted Head

2.       From the Heavenly Kingdom

3.       For our Great God and Savior

3.       The Wrath of the Lamb (Rev 6.16)

1.       Judge From Heaven (James 5.9; 1 Pet 4.5; Rev 6.10; 20.4)

2.       To Consummate His Triumph (Ps 7.6; 67; 94; 110.1; John 12.31; Rev 21.11-15)

4.       With the Lord

1.       "So We Shall Always Be with the Lord" (1 Thess 4.16-18)

2.       Consummated Sanctity (Phil 1.6-10)

53. What do you believe concerning the Holy Spirit ?

First, that He is co-eternal God with the Father and the Son.1 Secondly, that He is also given unto me,2 by true faith makes me a partaker of Christ and all His benefits,3 comforts me4 and shall abide with me forever.5

1 Genesis 1:2. Isaiah 48:15. I Corinthians 3:16. I Corinthians 6:19. Acts 5:3,4. 2 Matthew 28:19; 2 Corinthians 1:21,22. 3 I Peter 1:2. I Corinthians 6:17. 4 Acts 9:31. 5 John 14:16. I Peter 4:14. * I John 4:13. * Romans 15:13.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Third Person of the Holy Trinity;

2.       Co-Operator in Creation and Redemption;

3.       Proceeding from the Father and the Son (filioque);

4.       Revealing and Uniting us to the Son.

2.       Co-Eternal God

1.       "Hovering over the Face of the Deep" (Gen 1.2);

2.       Christ Offered Himself "Through the Eternal Spirit" (Heb 9.14);

3.       "The Lord God has Sent me and His Spirit." (Isa 48.16);

4.       "The Spirit of God and Glory" (Ex 24.16; Ez 10.4; 1 Pet 4.14)

5.       The Holiness of the Holy Spirit (Matt12.32; Rom 1.4).

3.       Given to Me

1.       The Giver of Faith (Eph 2.9);

2.       Our Bond with Christ (1 Cor 12.13);

3.       Applying Redemption to ChristÂ’s people (Rom 2.29; 5.5; 7.4-6)

4.       Giving Good Gifts (1 Cor 12.3-4);

4.       The Comforter

1.       "I will Send the Helper" (John 16.7);

2.       "Lo I Will Be With You" (Matt 28.20);

3.       The Seal and Down-payment (1 Cor 1.21; Eph 1.14).

4.       Carrying Along the Writers of Scripture (Acts 1.16; 2 Tim 3.16; 2 Peter 1.21);

5.       The Power of Worship (John 4.24; Phil 3.3);

6.       The Power of Prayer (Matt 26.41; Rom 8.26-7; Eph 6.18; Jude 20);

7.       The Power of the Christian Life (Rom 8.1-17)

1.       Spirit v. Letter (2 Cor 3)

2.       Law v. Gospel (Gal 3.7-14)

8.       Word and Spirit (Eph 6.17; 1 Thess 1.5).

54. What do you believe concerning the "Holy Catholic Church"?

That, out of the whole human race,1 from the beginning to the end of the world,2 the Son of God,3 by His Spirit and Word,
4 gathers, defends and preserves for Himself to everlasting life a chosen communion5 in the unity of the true faith;6 and that I am and forever shall remain a living member of the same.7

1 Genesis 26:4. 2 John 10:10. 3 Ephesians 1:10-13. 4 Romans 1:16. Isaiah 59:21. Romans 10:14-17. Ephesians 5:26. 5 Romans 8:29,30. Matthew 16:18. Ephesians 4:3-6. 6 Acts 2:46. Psalm 71:18. I Corinthians 11:26. John 10:28-30. I Corinthians 1:8,9. 7 I John 3:21. I John 2:19. * Galatians 3:28.

55. What do you understand by the "communion of saints"?

First, that believers, one and all, as members of the Lord Jesus Christ, are partakers with Him in all His treasures and gifts;1 secondly, that each one must feel himself bound to use his gifts readily and cheerfully for the advantage and welfare of other members.2

1 I John 1:3. 2 I Corinthians 12:12,13. I Corinthians 12:21. I Corinthians 13:5,6. Philippians 2:4-6. * Hebrews 3:14.

1.       Introduction

1.       No Salvation Outside the Church (extra ecclesiam nulla salus est);

2.       Visible and Invisible; Internal and External;

3.       The Church Triumphant and Militant.

2.       Election and the Church

1.       "Out of the Whole Human Race"

1.       In Adam's Fall;

2.       Mass of Damnation;

2.       "From Beginning to End"

1.       The Church in All Ages;

2.       The Church in History;

3.       The Sovereign Son of God

1.       Gathers (Rom 8:29-30);

2.       Defends;

3.       Preserves: "I am and Shall Remain" (CD 1.16; RE 1.1; 1.5; 5);

4.nbsp;      A Chosen Communion

1.       The "invisible" in the visible church;

2.       Not All Israel is Israel (Rom 9.6-25);

3.       Internal/External Distinction (Rom 2:18);

3.       The Unity of the True Faith

1.       Once for All Delivered to the Saints (Jude 1.3);

2.       The Holy Catholic Faith;

4.       Communion of the Saints (Communio Sanctorum)

1.       Union with Christ

1.       The Superstructure of the Order of Salvation (ordo salutis);

2.       Realized through Faith alone in Christ alone;

2.       Partakers with Christ in his"Treasures and Gifts;"

1.       The Gifts of the Spirit (1 Cor 12.4-12);

2.       Gifts Today;

3.       Bound to Use Christ's Gifts

1.       For Christ's People (1 Cor 12.21-26);

2.       According to Christ's Word;

3.       Christianly

1.       Cheerfully

2.       For the advantage and welfare of Christ's members.

56. What do you believe concerning the"forgiveness of sins"?

That God, for the sake of Christ's satisfaction,1 will no more remember my sins, nor the sinful nature with which I have to struggle all my life long; but graciously imputes to me the righteousness of Christ,2 that I may nevermore come into condemnation.3

1 1 John 2:2. 2 2 Corinthians 5:19,21. Romans 7:24,25. Psalm 103:3,10,12. Jeremiah 31:34. Romans 8;1-4. 3 John 3:18. * Ephesians 1:7. * Romans 4:7,8. * Romans 7:18.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Rise of Moralism in the Early Fathers;

2.       Medieval Moralism

1.       Gracious and Priestly (sacerdotal);

2.       Realistic (God says what he says because you are what you are);

3.       Voluntary (God says what he says because he wants to);

3.       The Reformation of Forgiveness;

4.       The Million Dollar Question: Why Not Until 1519?;

2.       That God

1.       Definition of Forgiveness ("no more remembers");

2.       The Trinitarian Source of Forgiveness;

3.       God Acts First and Alone (monergism; Eph 2.1-4);

3.       For Christ's Sake

1.       The Legal Basis of Forgiveness;

1.       Christ's Satisfaction (1 John 2.2; Eph 1.7; see http://public.csusm.edu/public/guests/rsclark/atonement.htm);

2.       Christ's Righteousness (2 Cor 5.19, 21; Rom 5.10-21);

2.       That Which is Forgiven

1.       Original Sin ("the day you eat"; Gen 2.17; Ps 51.5);

2.       Actual Sin (Ps 103.3, 10, 12; Rom 3.23);

3.       The Process of Forgiveness

1.       Imputation of Adam's Sin and Mine to Christ (2 Cor 5.19);

2.       The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness to Me (Rom 4.3-12, 22-5;Gal 3.6;James 2.23);

4.       The Recipient of Forgiveness

1.       The Life-long Sinner (Rom 5.6-8; 7.24-5);

2.       Contra Perfectionism;

3.       Against the Theology of Glory;

4.       That I May Never More

1.       There is Therefore Now No Condemnation (Rom 8.1-4);

2.       Whoever believes (John 3.18).

57. What comfort does the "resurrection of the body" afford you?

That not only my soul after this life shall be immediately taken up to Christ its Head;1 but also, that this my body, raised by the power of Christ, shall be reunited with my soul, and made like unto the glorious body of Christ.2

1 Luke 23:43. Philippians 1:21-23. 2 I Corinthians 15:53,54. Job 19:25-27. I John 3:2.

1.       Introduction

1.       Ancient Docetism;

2.       Anabaptist Docetism;

3.       Contemporary Docetism;

2.       Immediately At Death

1.       "To be absent from the body" (2 Cor 5.6-8);

2.       The Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk 16.19-31);

3.       "Today you shall be" (Luke 23.43);

4.       Created Body and Soul (Gen 2.7);

5.       Body/soul dualism (not all dualisms are Greek!);

3.       This My Body

1.       Like Christ's Resurrection Body (1 Cor 15.20, 23; Rom 8.11, 23);

2.       Bodily (2 Tim 2.18);

3.       Resurrection is Renewal not Replacement;

4.       The Organic Unity Between the pre- and post-resurrection body-soul complex;

5.       The Body as "Seed" and the Ethics of Burial (1 Cor 15.35-49)

4.       Raised by Christ’s Power

5.       Reunited Body and Soul (2 Cor 4);

6.       Raised (1 Cor 15.53-54);

7.       In my flesh (Job 19.25-27);

8.       We shall see him (1 John 3.2);

58. What comfort do you have from the article of "life everlasting"?

That, inasmuch as I now feel in my heart the beginning of eternal joy,1 I shall after this life possess complete bliss, such as eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither has entered into the heart of man,2 therein to praise God forever.3

1 2 Corinthians 5:2,3. 2 1 Corinthians 2:9. 3 John 17:3. * Romans 8:23. * 1 Peter 1:8.

1.       Introduction

1.       Our Intended End

1.       The Tree of Life (Gen 2.9;3.22-4; Rev 2.7; 22.14,19);

2.       HC Questions 6, 9;

2.       The Benefits of Christ

2.       "I Feel in My Heart"

1.       Feelings and the Faith

2.       Its Source: The Earnest/Guarantee of the Spirit (Rom 8.22-25; 2 Cor 1.22; 5.2-5; Eph 1.14).

3.       The Medium: The Word (Rom 10.8-9);

3.       The Beginning of Eternal Joy

1.       Begun But Not Consummated (Mt 3.2);

2.       "Solid Joy" (OT: Simechah; NT: Chara)

1.       In redemption; (1 Sam 18.6; Luke 2.10);

2.       In the Word (Neh 8.12,17; John 15.11);

3.       The Fruit of the Spirit (Gal 5.22);

4.       In God's Presence (Ps 4.7; 1 Thess 2.19-20; 3.9;Heb 12.2);

4.       Blessedness After This Life

1.       With Christ's Advent

1.       Jude 24;

2.       "And so we will be with the Lord forever" (1 Thess 4.17b);

3.       Encourage One Another With These Words (1 Thess 4.18);

4.       The Hope of Glory (Col 1.27;

5.       At Our Death (1 Cor 2.6-10);

1.       To Praise God Forever

1.       With the Elders (Rev 4.10-11);

2.       With the Angels (Rev 5.12);

3.       In the New Heavens and Earth (Rev 2.1-5; 21.1-14)

59. What does it help you now, that you believe all this?

That I am righteous in Christ before God, and an heir of eternal life.1

1 Habakkuk 2:4. Romans 1:17. John 3:36. * Titus 3:7. *Romans 5:1. * Romans 8:16.

60. How are you righteous before God?

Only by true faith in Jesus Christ;1 that is, although my conscience accuse me, that I have grievously sinned against all the commandments of God, and have never kept any of them,2 and am still prone always to all evil; 3 yet God without any merit of mine, 4 of mere grace, 5 grants and imputes to me the perfect satisfaction, 6 righteousness, and holiness of Christ, 7 as if I had never committed nor had any sin, and had myself accomplished all the obedience which Christ has fulfilled for me; 8 if only I accept such benefit with a believing heart.9

1 Romans 3:21-25. Galatians 2:16. Ephesians 2:8,9. Philippians 3:9. 2 Romans 3:9,10. 3 Romans 7:23.; 4 Titus 3:5. 5 Romans 3:24. Ephesians 2:8. 6 I John 2:2. 7 I John 2:1. Romans 4:4,5. II Corinthians 5:19. 8 II Corinthians 5:21. 9 John 3:18. * Romans 3:28. * Romans 10:10.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Greatest of the Twin Benefits;

1.       An objective fact: I am righteous (Hab 2.4; Rom 1.17 etc)

2.       No Two Stage Justification - the present is the final/eschatological, the final is the present.

3.       Final judgement for Believers?

1.       Matt 13.43, 49;

2.       Mt 25.33,34, 45,46.

2.       Our inheritance as adopted sons (Eph 1.5,14)

2.       The Question of the Ages

1.       Not Whether, but How? Presupposes A Real and Pressing Need;

2.       The Instrumentality of Faith

3.       The sole, simple, divinely ordained, passive, receptive, apprehensive instrument of justification.

3.       Although My Conscience Accuses Me

1.       Does Our Conscience Lie (in this regard)? No!

2.       Our Lifelong Struggle with Sin

1.       Rom 7;

2.       The Spirit and Flesh (Rom 8.9-10);

3.       Prone by nature (Q.5)

4.       The Christian Life is a Death (HC 43, 56, 88-90);

5.       We have only a beginning of piety (HC 114);

6.       We fight against sin with a free conscience (Q.32);

7.       Our best works are defiled (HC 62, 63).

4.       Yet God

1.       Without my Merit

1.       Condign

2.       Congruent

3.       But not without any merit.

2.       Of Mere Grace Grants

1.       Gen 6.8; Ex 33.15-17);

2.       Lk 1.30; Jn 1.17; Rom 3.24;4.4,16; 5.20;Gal 2.21)

3.       Demerited;

4.       Unmerited;

5.       Favor not medicine;

3.       C. Imputes

1.       Gen 15.6; Ps 32.2; Rom 2.26 (see notes on Q. 36);

2.       Rom 5.12-21;

3.       Banking (credit), Legal (declare) and TailorÂ’s (clothe) Language;

4.       Alien not Proper Righteousness;

4.       Christ’s Perfect Satisfaction, Righteousness and Holiness

1.       See notes on QQ.12-14, 43);

2.       Propitiation, Atonement, Active and Passive Obedience;

3.       Satisfied etc 12 times in HC;

5.       As If I Was Sinless and Positively Righteous

1.       Without Sin (Lev 4.23; Ps 7.1);

2.       The Glorious Exchange (2 Cor 5.21);

3.       Christ For Us (Rom 5.8; 8.32; Gal 2.20; 3.13;Eph 5.2;1 Thess 5.10;Tit 2.14;Heb 9.24; 10.20; 1 Jn 3.16)

6.       If Only I Accept Such Benefit

1.       With a Believing Heart (Q. 21)

2.       Knowledge, Assent and Trust

 61. Why do you say, that you are righteous by faith only?

Not that I am acceptable to God on account of the worthiness of my faith, but because only the satisfaction, righteousness and holiness of Christ is my righteousness before God1 and I can receive the same and make it my own in no other way than by faith only.2

1 I Corinthians 1:30; I Corinthians 2:2. 2 I John 5:10; * Isaiah 53:5; * Galatians 3:22; * Romans 4:16.

62. But why cannot our good works be the whole or part of our righteousness before God?

Because the righteousness which can stand before the judgment-seat of God, must be perfect throughout and wholly conformable to the divine law;1 but even our best works in this life are all imperfect and defiled with sin.2

1 Galatians 3:10; Deuteronomy 27:26; 2 Isaiah 64:6; * James 2:10; * Philippians 3:12.

63. Do our good works merit nothing, even though it is God's will to reward them in this life and in that which is to come?

The reward comes not of merit, but of grace.1

1 Luke 17:10; * Romans 11:6.

64. But does not this doctrine make men careless and profane?

No, for it is impossible that those who are implanted into Christ by true faith, should not bring forth fruits of thankfulness.1

1 Matthew 7:18; * Romans 6:1,2; * John 15:5.

1.       Introduction

1.       Why Sola Fide is So Important

2.       Corruptions of Sola Fide

3.       Merit - Again

4.       Are We Antinomian?

2.       The Power/Virtue of Faith

1.       Christ’s Righteousness (Mk 9.24)

2.       The Object of Saving Faith (1 Cor 2.2)

3.       Saving Faith Distinct From Sanctifying Faith (Gal 3.22; Eph 2.8)

3.       Faith is Not the Ground of Justification

1.       Christ’s Obedience is the Ground (Gal 3.10; Rom 5.18)

2.       Justifying Faith

1.       "Receiving" Christ

2.       "Resting" in Christ's Finished Work

3.       "Apprehending" Christ

4.       The Role of Good Works

1.       The Necessity of Good Works

1.       Logical - "impossible" (Mt 7.18; Rom 6.1,2; Jn 15.15).

2.       Moral (ought) (1 Cor 6.20)

3.       Evidentiary (1 Peter 2.12)

2.       Works Not Part of the Ground or Instrument of Justification

1.       Righteousness coram Deo must be perfect throughout

2.       No work we do is perfect throughout - wholly conformed to God's Law

3.       Our best works are always defiled with sin (Rom 7.15)

4.       No congruent merit

5.       The Worthlessness of Sinful Works

1.       Pre-fall Adam's Works Merited Reward (Gen 2.9 - tree of life).

2.       Post-fall, Adam's works merit only death (Gen 2.17 - tree of the knowledge of good and evil).

3.       Whatever Reward Comes to Christians is Gracious (Rom 11.6)

 65. Since then we are made partakers of Christ and all His benefits by faith only, from where comes this faith?

The Holy Spirit works faith in our hearts1 by the preaching of the Holy Gospel, and confirms it by the use of the Holy Sacraments.2

1 John 3:5. * Romans 10:17. 2 Romans 4:11. * Acts 8:37.

66. What are the Sacraments?

The Sacraments are visible holy signs and seals appointed of God for this end, that by the use thereof He may the more fully declare and seal to us the promise of the Gospel: namely, that of free grace, He grants us the forgiveness of sins and everlasting life for the sake of the one sacrifice of Christ accomplished on the cross.1

1 Genesis 17:11. Romans 4:1. Deuteronomy 30:6. Hebrews 9:8,9. Ezekiel 20:12.

67. Are both the Word and the Sacraments designed to direct our faith to the sacrifice of Christ on the cross as the only ground of our salvation?

Yes truly, for the Holy Spirit teaches in the Gospel and assures us by the Holy Sacraments, that our whole salvation stands in the one sacrifice of Christ made for us on the cross.1

1 Romans 6:3. * Galatians 3:27. * Hebrews 9:12. * Acts 2:41,42.

68. How many Sacraments has Christ instituted in the New Testament?

Two: Holy Baptism and Holy Supper

1.       Introduction

1.       Divine Ends and Means in Scripture

1.       The Sovereign Spirit (Gen 1.1; Rom 1.4; John 3.5;Rom 8.9-11; 2 Cor 3.6; 1 Thess 1.5-6)

2.       Man gave names to all the animals(Gen 2.20)

3.       How can they hear without a preacher? (Rom 10.14)

4.       And the Word became flesh (1 John 1.14)

5.       He came through water and blood (1 John 5.6) p>

2.       The (Modern) War Against Divine Instruments

1.       Mysticism/Super-spirituality/Pietism

1.       Collegia pietatis Ï Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705)

2.       Conventicles/Prayer Groups

3.       Quakerism (George Fox (1624-1691)

2.       Rationalism

1.       The lever

2.       The Pietist parents of the Great Liberals

3.       The Feeling of Divine Dependence (Schleiermacher 1768-1834)

3.       C. The Evangelical Fall from the Means of Grace

1.       Seven-steps to spirituality (R. Foster)

2.       Revivialism

3.       Hodge v. Nevin

4.       Practical excommunication

2.       The Sacraments in Scripture

1.       Covenant Signs

0.       The Tree (Gen 2.9)

1.       The Flood (Gen 9.12-17)

2.       The Covenant of Grace (Gen 17)

2.nbsp;      Covenant Initiation

0.       Circumcision (Gen 17.10-14)

1.       Baptism (Acts 2.38-39)

3.       Covenant Renewal

0.       Passover (Exodus 12)

1.       Feast of Weeks (Ex 34.22)

2.       Tabernacles (Leviticus 23:34)

3.       The Supper (Luke 22.19-20)

3.       The Sacraments in History

1.       The Medieval Sacramental System

2.       The Reformation

3.       Modernity

4.       The Function of the Sacraments

1.       The Sacraments are Gospel not Law

2.       Visible Signs and Holy Seals (1 Kings 21.8; Dt 30.6; Mt 27.66; Eph 1.13; Rom 4.11)

3.       The Holy Spirit Teaches in the Gospel and Assures in the Sacraments (Rom 4.1)

4.       Working With the Word by the Spirit (Rom 6.3; Gal 3.27)

69. How is it signified and sealed to you in Holy Baptism, that you have part in the one sacrifice of Christ on the cross?

Thus: that Christ instituted this outward washing with water1 and joined therewith this promise:2 that I am washed with His blood and Spirit from the pollution of my soul, that is, from all my sins, as certainly as I am washed outwardly with water, whereby commonly the filthiness of the body is taken away.3

1 Matthew 28:19,20. Acts 2:38. 2 Matthew 3:11. Mark 16:16. Romans 6:3,4. 3 Mark 1:4.

70. What is it to be washed with the blood and Spirit of Christ?

It is to have the forgiveness of sins from God through grace, for the sake of Christ's blood, which He shed for us in His sacrifice on the cross;1 and also, to be renewed by the Holy Spirit and sanctified to be members of Christ, that so we may more and more die unto sin and lead holy and unblamable lives.2

1 Hebrews 12:24. I Peter 1:2. Revelation 1:5. Zechariah 13:1. Ezekiel 36:25-27. 2 John 1:33. John 3:3 I Corinthians 6:11. I Corinthians 12:13. * Hebrews 9:14.

71. Where has Christ promised that we are as certainly washed with His blood and Spirit as with the water of Baptism?

In the institution of Baptism, which says: "Go therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit .1 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned."2 This promise is also repeated, where Scripture calls Baptism the washing of regeneration,3 and the washing away of sins.4

1 Matthew 28:19. 2 Mark 16:16. 3 Titus 3:5. 4 Acts 22:16.

1.       Introduction: Four Western Views of Baptism

1.       Roman - By it working it works

2.       Baptist - a public testimony of faith

3.       Lutheran - the means of regeneration

4.       Reformed - covenant sign and seal/means of grace

2.       I. The Covenant of Grace

1.       With Adam (Gen 3.14-15)

2.       With Abraham (Gen 15; 17.10-14)

3.       Initiation and Renewal (Exodus 12)

3.       New Covenant and Old

1.       When Is "New" not New? (Jer 31.31; Luke 22.290; 1 Cor 11.25; 2 Cor 3.6; Heb 8.8, 13; 9:15; 12.24)

2.       Old = Mosaic (Gal 3; 4.21-31; 2 Cor 3.7-18; Hebrews 3-11)

3.       All the promises are yes and amen in Christ (2 Cor 1.20; John 8.56)

4.       The promises remain, the circumstances change

1.       From types to fulfillment

2.       From bloody to bloodless

3.       The deafening silence of the NT (compare to end of ceremonial law)

5.       Tell it to Abraham (Rom 3-4)

6.       Circumcision and Baptism (Col 2.11-12; Acts 2.38-39)

7.       Covenant Sign (testimony to all) and Seal (promise to those who believe)

1.       1 Peter 3.21; Titus 3.5; Acts 22.16

2.       Matt 3.11;Mk 16.16

3.       Rom 6.4

4.       III. The Meaning of Baptism is the Meaning of the Gospel

1.       Forgiveness of sins through grace, for the sake of ChristÂ’s blood and sacrifice for me.

2.       Renewal in the image of Christ by the Spirit (Ez 36.25-27; Rom 8.29)

3.       Members of Christ (1 Cor 12.27)

72. Is then the outward washing with water itself the washing away of sins?

No,1 for only the blood of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit cleanse us from all sin.2

1 I Peter 3:21. Ephesians 5:26. 2 I John 1:7. I Corinthians 6:11.

73. Why then does the Holy Spirit call Baptism the washing of regeneration and the washing away of sins?

God speaks thus not without great cause, namely, not only to teach us thereby that like as the filthiness of the body is taken away by water, so our sins are taken away by the blood and Spirit of Christ;1 but much more, that by this divine pledge and token He may assure us, that we are as really washed from our sins spiritually as our bodies are washed with water.2

1 Revelation 7:14. 2 Mark 16:16. * Acts 2:38.

74. Are infants also to be baptized?

Yes, for since they belong to the covenant and people of God as well as their parents,1 and since redemption from sin through the blood of Christ,2 and the Holy Spirit who works faith, are promised to them no less than to their parents,3 they are also by Baptism, as the sign of the Covenant, to be ingrafted into the Christian Church, and distinguished from the children of unbelievers,4 as was done in the Old Testament by Circumcision,5 in place of which in the New Testament Baptism is instituted.6

1 Genesis 17:7. 2 Matthew 19:14. 3 Luke 1:14,15. Psalm 22:10. Acts 2:39. 4 Acts 10:47 5 Genesis 17:14. 6 Colossians 2:11-13.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Sign and the Thing Signified

1.       Realism

2.       Nominalism

3.       Sacramental language

2.       Distinction Not Confusion

2.       What Baptism Does Not Do

1.       Wash Away Sins

1.       Sin is law-breaking and merits eternal punishment

2.       Only perfect justice can satisfy and divine power make clean

3.       Sacraments are never endued with such power

4.       Christ's blood (righteousness) washes (1 Peter 3.21 etc)

2.       Regenerate

1.       In the sense, "to sanctify," yes. In sense, "to awaken from death to life," no.

2.       The Spirit uses the Preached Word (HC 65)

3.       What Baptism Does

1.       Signify to All

2.       Seal/Promise to Believers

4.       Relating Sign and Thing Signified

1.       To Teach

2.       To Promise

3.       To assure

5.       Applying the Sign

1.       To Confessing Adults Entering the Covenant

2.       To Covenant Children

1.       They belong to the covenant (externally)

2.       Redemption (not election!) is promised - on condition of faith

3.       Ingrafted into the Church

4.       Separated from the children of unbelievers

3.       Contra Covenantal Moralists

1.       We are not made "elect" in baptism

2.       We are not made "regenerate" in baptism

3.       We are not "justified" in baptism

4.       The Promises of Baptism are the Promises of the Gospel

75. How is it signified and sealed to you in the Holy Supper, that you do partake of the one sacrifice of Christ on the cross and all His benefits?

Thus: that Christ has commanded me and all believers to eat of this broken bread and to drink of this cup in remembrance of Him, and has joined therewith these promises:1 First, that His body was offered and broken on the cross for me and His blood shed for me, as certainly as I see with my eyes the bread of the Lord broken for me and the cup communicated to me; and further, that with His crucified body and shed blood He Himself feeds and nourishes my soul to everlasting life, as certainly as I receive from the hand of the minister and taste with my mouth the bread and cup of the Lord, which are given me as certain tokens of the body and blood of Christ.

1 Matthew 26:26-28. Mark 14:22-24. Luke 22:19,20. I Corinthians 10:16,17. I Corinthians 11:23-25. I Corinthians 12:13.

1.       Introduction

1.       Views of the Supper

1.       Eucharistic sacrifice (Rome)

2.       Mere memorial (Zwingli/Evangelicals)

3.       Sacramental meal (Lutherans/Reformed)

2.       The Differences Between Baptism and the Supper

1.       Sacrament of initiation into the visible church

2.       Sacrament of nutrition (and renewal)

3.       The History of the Supper

1.       The Feasts in Redemptive History (see p.42; QQ.68-69) ~ Whenever the church gathered, they celebrated a sacred feast.

2.       Covenant Renewal ~ Josh 24.25

3.       The Institution (Luke 22; 1 Cor 11)

4.       Apostolic Practice ~ Acts 2.42, 46 "breaking of bread and (the) prayers"

5.       The Deformation of the Supper: development of the Roman priesthood and the Eucharistic sacrifice

6.       The Reformation of the Supper

7.       The Rise of Revivalism and Memorialism and the Eclipse of the Supper

8.       The Recovery of the Supper

2.       Resources on the Supper

1.       Belgic Confession Art 35

2.       Calvin's Institutes 4.17-18

3.       "The Evangelical Fall From the Means of Grace"

3.       The Supper As Commanded Sign and Seal

0.       Sign of Christ's Death and Its Benefits to All

1.       Seal of the Benefits of Christ Death to All Believers

2.       The Supper is Mandatory for Believers

4.       II. The Promises of the Supper

0.       As Certainly

1.       The signs of a reality

2.       The truth of believing sense experience

3.       The humanity of the supper

1.       His Body and Blood were Offered for me

2.       We still eat the lamb: He Feeds Me with his crucified body (Ex 12)

1.       The types and shadows fulfilled

2.       Christ is no less with us (Matt 28.20)

3.       The power and ubiquity of the God the Son and the Holy Spirit

4.       Unless you eat my flesh..(John 6.41-65)

1.       Jesus' hard words

2.       Jesus the Bread of Life

3.       The necessity of the flesh and blood feast span>

3.       Christ Must Feed Us

1.       Nourishing our souls (1 Cor 10.16, 17; 1 Cor 12.13)

2.       This is my body (Luke 22.19, 20)

 76. What does it mean to eat the crucified body and drink the shed blood of Christ?

It means not only to embrace with a believing heart all the sufferings and death of Christ, and thereby to obtain the forgiveness of sins and life eternal;1 but moreover also, to be so united more and more to His sacred body by the Holy Spirit,2 who dwells both in Christ and in us, that, although He is in heaven3 and we on earth, we are nevertheless flesh of His flesh and bone of His bone,4 and live and are governed forever by one Spirit, as members of the same body are by one soul.5

1 John 6:35,40,47,48. John 6:50-54. 2 John 6:55,56. 3Acts 3:21. I Corinthians 11:26. 4Ephesians 3:16-19. Ephesians 5:29,30,32. I Corinthians 6:15,17,19. I John 4:13. 5John 14:23. John 6:56-58. John 15:1-6. Ephesians 4:15,16. John 6:63.

77. Where has Christ promised, that He will thus feed and nourish believers with His body and blood, as certainly as they eat of this broken bread and drink of this cup?

In the institution of the Supper, which says: "The Lord Jesus the same night in which He was betrayed took bread: and when He had given thanks, He broke it, and said, Take eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also He took the cup, when He had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: do this as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you show the Lord's death till He come."1 And this promise is also repeated by St. Paul,2 where he says: "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? For we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread."

1 I Corinthians 11:23-25. 2 I Corinthians 10:16,17.

1.       Introduction

1.       Not Whether But How

2.       "The sacrament of nutrition" (Van Mastricht)

1.       This is my body take, eat do

2.       This is my blood drink

3.       The koinonia (participation) of Christ's body and blood

2.       Embracing By Believing

1.       Justifying Faith

2.       By Which We Obtain Forgiveness and Eternal Life — Justification

3.       The Object of Justifying Faith: Christ's Sufferings and Death (John 6)

3.       Progressive Union Christ

1.       Union and Sanctification (John 6.55,56)

2.       By the Holy Spirit (Rom 6)

4.       To the Ascended Humanity of Christ

1.       One Person, Two Natures

1.       A Ubiquitous Divine Nature (Mt 28.20)

2.       A Local Human Nature (Acts 3.21)

2.nbsp;      The Ubiquitous Holy Spirit Transcends the Chasm Between Our Humanity and Christ's

5.       Bone of Bone, Flesh of Flesh

1.       Husband and Wife (Gen 2.23)

2.       To Christ Our Bridegroom

1.       Eph 5.24-30

2.       Eph 3.15-19

3.       To Christ Our Head

1.       Growing up into Christ (Eph 4.15-16)

2.       Eph 5.23

3.       1 Cor 6.15-19

4.       In Whom We Live

1.       Governed by one Spirit and Word (Eph 4.4; John 6.63)

2.       As branches of the Vine (John 15-1-6)

3.       Partakers of one bread, we are one bread

78. Do then the bread and the wine become the real body and blood of Christ?

No, but as the water in Baptism is not changed into the blood of Christ, nor becomes the washing away of sins itself, being only the divine token and assurance thereof; so also in the Lord's Supper the sacred bread1 does not become the body of Christ itself, though agreeably to the nature and usage of sacraments it is called the body of Christ.

1 Matthew 26:29. I Corinthians 11: 26-28. Exodus 12:26,27. Exodus 12:43,48. I Corinthians 10:1-4.

79. Why then does Christ call the bread His body, and the cup His blood, or the new testament in His blood, and St. Paul, the communion of the body and the blood of Christ?

Christ speaks thus not without great cause, namely, not only to teach us thereby, that like as the bread and wine sustain this temporal life, so also His crucified body and shed blood are the true meat and drink of our souls unto life eternal;1 but much more, by this visible sign and pledge to assure us, that we are as really partakers of His true body and blood by the working of the Holy Spirit , as we receive by the mouth of the body these holy tokens in remembrance of Him;2 and that all His sufferings and obedience are as certainly our own, as if we ourselves had suffered and done all in our own person.

1 John 6:51-55. 2 I Corinthians 10:16,17.

1.       Introduction

1.       Radbertus v. Ratramnus ("truth" v. "figure")

2.       Protestants v. Rome

3.       Luther and Calvin v. Zwingli

2.       The Sign/Seal and the Thing Signified/Sealed

1.       "That Rock was Christ" (1 Cor 10.1-6)

1.       Under the cloud and through the sea

2.       Baptized into Moses

3.       Ate and Drank the same spiritual food and drink

4.       "Was" isn't "Becomes"

5.       v.6: For the elect, it was a sacrament of life, for the reprobate, a sacrament of death.

2.       The Passover Lamb Did not "Become" Christ -

1.       Christ is the Lamb

2.       The Lamb is Christ— sacramentally

3.       Christ's Visible Gospel: As Often as You Eat (1 Cor 11.26-27)

1.       Genuine Lay ministry: Eaters are Preachers ("you proclaim Christ's death")

2.       Because of the sacramental reality, eaters are in jeopardy (v.27-32)

4.       The "Divine Token and Assurance" (Sign and Seal/Promise)

1.       As bread and wine sustain, so "his crucified body and shed blood are the true meat and drink for our souls unto life eternal." (John 6.51-55)

2.       As a Sign and Seal

1.       Certainly as we Believe with the Heart and Eat with the Mouth (Rom 10)

2.       So Certainly Are We Partakers of His True Body and Blood (1 Cor 10.16)

3.       By the Operation of the Holy Spirit

1.       Who Fed Believers on Christ Through Manna and Water

2.       Who Fed Believers on Christ Through the Lamb

4.       That the Gospel is Really True For Me— That All Christ's Sufferings and Obedience are Mine (sola gratia, sola fide, solo Christo)

80. What difference is there between the Lord's Supper and the Popish Mass?

The Lord's Supper testifies to us, that we have full forgiveness of all our sins by the one sacrifice of Jesus Christ, which He Himself once accomplished on the cross;1 and that by the Holy Spirit we are ingrafted into Christ,2 who, with His true body, is now in heaven at the right hand of the Father,3 and is there to be worshipped.4 But the Mass teaches, that the living and the dead do not have forgiveness of sins through the sufferings of Christ, unless Christ is still daily offered for them by the priests, and that Christ is bodily under the form of bread and wine, and is therefore to be worshipped in them. And thus the Mass at bottom is nothing else than a denial of the one sacrifice and passion of Jesus Christ,5 and an accursed idolatry.

1 Hebrews 7:27. Hebrews 9:12,25-28. Hebrews 10:10,12,14. John 19:30. 2 I Corinthians 6:17. 3 Hebrews 1:3. Hebrews 8:1. 4 John 4:21-24. John 20:17. Luke 24:52. Acts 7:55. Colossians 3:1. Philippians 3:20,21. I Thessalonians 1:9,10. 5 Hebrews, chapters 9 and 10. * Matthew 4:10.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Rise of the Roman Sacrificial System

1.       The turn to the "literal" 9th c (Paschasius Radbertus)

2.       4th Lateran Council (1215) "transubstantiation"

2.       Council of Trent Session 22 (Sept 1562)

1.       Apostles as "priests of the New Testament" (cap 1)

2.       Memorial

3.       For the remission of sins

4.       The consummation of the OT sacrifices

5.       Christ "contained and immolated [sacrificed] in an unbloody manner" (Cap 2)

6.       A "truly propitiatory" sacrifice

7.       For the living and the dead

3.       The Elector’s Response

1.       3rd edn of the Catechism

2.       Olevian commission to write Q. 80.

3.       The Most controversial question

2.       The Gospel of the Supper

1.       Full Forgiveness of Sins

2.       By the One Sacrifice of Christ

3.       We’re United to Christ

4.       Christ’s Humanity in Heaven

1.       At the Right Hand

2.       There to Be Worshipped

3.       He does not come down out of heaven bodily to take up residence in the elements

3.       The Mass Teaches

1.       The Sacrifice of the Mass is Law - our offering (oblation) to God.

2.       The Mass is A Daily Sacrifice of Christ Denying Christ’s One Sacrifice (Heb 7.27)

3.       The Mass Subverts Christ’s One Propitiation (Rom 3.25,26)

4.       The Mass Confuses Creator and Creature (Rom 1.25)

5.       The Mass is an Accursed Idoatry

81. Who are to come to the table of the Lord?

Those who are displeased with themselves for their sins, yet trust that these are forgiven them, and that their remaining infirmity is covered by the passion and death of Christ; who also desire more and more to strengthen their faith and to amend their life. But the impenitent and hypocrites eat and drink judgment to themselves.1

1 I Corinthians 10:19-22. I Corinthians 11:28,29. * Psalm 51:3. * John 7:37,38. * Psalm 103:1-4. * Matthew 5:6.

82. Are they then also to be admitted to this Supper who show themselves by their confession and life to be unbelieving and ungodly?

No, for thereby the covenant of God is profaned and His wrath provoked against the whole congregation;1 wherefore the Christian Church is bound, according to the order of Christ and His Apostles, to exclude such persons by the Office of the Keys until they amend their life.

1 I Corinthians 11:20,34a. Isaiah 1:11-15. Isaiah 66:3. Jeremiah 7:21-23. Psalm 50:16,17. * Matthew 7:6. * I Corinthians 11:30-32. * Titus 3:10,11. * II Thessalonians 3:6.

1.       Introduction

2.       Three Views

1.       Closed

1.       Only members of a particular congregation or denomination may come;

2.       Practiced by some Rome and Lutherans (e.g. LCMS) and others.

2.       Open

1.       The supper is a "converting ordinance" (Solomon Stoddard) or a mere memorial (Zwingli);

2.       Anyone or any Christ-confessor may come regardless of affliation;

3.       Practiced by many free-church evangelicals.

3.       Guarded/Close

                        4.       Only Christ-confessors who are members of true or Reformed churches may come;

 

3.       True Christians in True Churches

1.       BC Art. 29

2.       The Heidelberg Church Order (Jan 1563);

3.       The URC Church Order

4.       Article 44 ...admitted to communicant membership only after the Consistory has examined them concerning doctrine and life. Article 45 The Consistory shall supervise participation at the Lord's Table. No member shall be admitted to the Lord's Table who has not first made public profession of faith and is not living a godly life. Visitors may be admitted provided that, as much as possible, the Consistory is assured of their biblical church membership, of their proper profession of faith, and of their godly walk.

4.       Spiritual Prerequisites of the Communicant

5.       Displeased with Self (HC 2)

6.       Believe the Gospel (HC 1,2,19, 21, 60)

7.       Who Desire Sanctity (HC 2, 49, 86)

1.       Strengthen faith (Mk 9.24);

2.       Amend life (1 Peter 2.24).

8.       Who are Not Impenitent

1.       You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and demons (1 Cor 10.21-22);

2.       Let a man examine himself (1 Cor 11.28-30).

9.       The Restrictions of the Supper

10.   Against the (Openly) Impenitent

11.   Profaning/Breaking the Covenant of Grace

1.       The covenant of grace cut in blood (Gen 15.10-11);

2.       Cut in or cut off (Gen 17.14; Lev 26.15-16; Ezekiel 17.7, 15; 25.7);

3.       The Corporate Sign and Seal Brings Corporate Jeopardy (1 Cor 11.20,30-34).

4.       The Supper is for the regenerate (Isa 1.11-15; Isa 66.2-3; Jer 7.16-26)

12.   The Moral Necessity of Exclusion

1.       To Love Your Neighbor

2.       To Protect the Congregation

3.       Glorify God

83. What is the Office of the Keys?

The preaching of the Holy Gospel and Christian discipline; by these two the Kingdom of Heaven is opened to believers and shut against unbelievers.1

1 Matthew 16:18,19. Matthew 18:18. * John 20:23. * Luke 24:46,47. * I Corinthians 1:23,24.

84. How is the Kingdom of Heaven opened and shut by the preaching of the Holy Gospel.

In this way: that according to the command of Christ, it is proclaimed and openly witnessed to believers, one and all, that as often as they accept with true faith the promise of the Gospel, all their sins are really forgiven them of God for the sake of Christ's merits; and on the contrary, to all unbelievers and hypocrites, that the wrath of God and eternal condemnation abide on them so long as they are not converted.1 According to this testimony of the Gospel, God will judge men both in this life and in that which is to come.

1John 20:21-23. * Acts 10:43. * Isaiah 58:1. * II Corinthians 2:15,16. * John 8:24.

85. How is the Kingdom of Heaven shut and opened by Christian discipline?

In this way: that according to the command of Christ, if any under Christian name show themselves unsound either in doctrine or in life, and after several brotherly admonitions do not turn from their errors or evil ways, they are complained of to the Church or to its proper officers; and, if they neglect to hear them also, are by them denied the Holy Sacraments and thereby excluded from the Christian Communion, and by God Himself from the Kingdom of Christ; and if they promise and show real amendment, they are again received as members of Christ and His Church.1

1 Matthew 18:15-18. I Corinthians 5:3-5,11. 2 Thessalonians 3:14,15. 2 John 10,11.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Roman doctrine of the church

2.       The Reformed doctrine of the church

1.       The Visible and Invisible Church

2.       The Covenant of Grace considered externally and internally

3.       The Visible Church/External Covenant Community as an Institution

3.       The Keys of the Kingdom

4.       The Roman Doctrine of the Keys

5.       The Biblical Doctrine of the Keys (Matt 16.13-20)

1.       Who Do You Say I Am?

2.       You are Peter

3.       On this rock - When is a rock not a rock? (v.23)

4.       Christ will build his church

5.       Whatever you bind (Matt 18.18-22)

6.       Whatever you forgive (John 20.21-23).

2.       The Function and Purpose of the Keys

1.       Gospel Proclamation

1.       The royal Word of forgiveness for the sake of Christ’s merits alone

2.       Received through faith alone

2.       Judgment Proclamation

1.       The same word with two functions (2 Cor 2.14-17; Heb 4.12)

2.       The Wrath of God abides on unbelievers in and out of the visible covenant community (Heb 3)

3.       Temporal-spiritual Judgment Rendered (Matt 18; 1 Cor 5; 2 Thess 3.6, 14,15)

1.       The corporate nature of the passage

2.       The purpose of discipline

3.       The grounds of discipline

4.       The place of discipline

5.       The process of discipline

Part 3: Gratitude (Sanctification)

86. Since then we are redeemed from our misery by grace through Christ, without any merit of ours, why should we do good works?

Because Christ, having redeemed us by His blood, also renews us by His Holy Spirit after His own image, that with our whole life we show ourselves thankful to God for His blessing,1 and also that He be glorified through us;2 then also, that we ourselves may be assured of our faith by the fruits thereof;3 and by our godly walk win also others to Christ.4

1 Romans 6:13. Romans 12:1,2. I Peter 2:5,9,10. I Corinthians 6:20. 2 Matthew 5:16. I Peter 2:12.3 Matthew 7:17,18. Galatians 5:6,22,23. 4 Romans 14:19. I Peter 3:1,2. * II Peter 1:10.

87. Can they then not be saved who do not turn to God from their unthankful, impenitent life?

By no means, for, as the Scripture says, no unchaste person, idolater, adulterer, thief, covetous man, drunkard, slanderer, robber, or the like shall inherit the Kingdom of God.1

1 I Corinthians 6:9,10. Ephesians 5:5,6. I John 3:14,15.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Necessary Pre-condition for Holiness

1.       Redeemed from Our Misery,

2.       By grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone

2.       The Role of Sanctity in the Christian Life

1.       The Medieval View: justification because of and through sanctity or good works;

2.       The Protestant View: justification produces sanctity or good works.

3.       The Genuine Motivation for Good Works

4.       False Motives for Good Works

1.       To enter into or improve relations with God;

2.       To earn "the merit of agreement" (congruent merit) with God; (i.e. because "God helps those who help themselves")

3.       To earn favor with God;

4.       To remain in the covenant community or in favor with God;

2.       The Second Benefit of Christ

1.       Because We're Redeemed

2.       He also Renews Us

3.       By His Holy Spirit (Titus 3.5)

1.       After the Image of Christ (Col 3.10; Eph 4.24)

2.       To Show Ourselves Thankful (Col 3.15)

3.       With out whole life (Rom 6.13; Rom 12.1,2)

4.       That He Be Glorified (1 Cor 10.31)

1.       The Chief End of Man (WSC 1)

2.       Let your light shine (Matt 5.16; 1 Pet 2.12)

5.       That We Might Be Assured

1.       The Practical Syllogism;

2.       By the Fruits Thereof (Matt 7.17,18; Gal 5.6,22,23);

3.       Win Also Others (1 Pet 3.15)

1.       By a godly life

2.       By a timely witness to Christ

6.       The Necessity of Sanctity in Salvation

1.       The logical, moral necessity of good works;

2.       As evidence of justification;

3.       Part of the process of salvation (deliverance from the power and effects of sin) as distinct from justification;

4.       Not as ground of justification;

5.       Not as the instrument of justification;

1.       The class of those who are not saved: the unthankful and impenitent;

2.       The relations between unbelief and impenitence

3.       The difference between "is" and "because."

88. In how many things does true repentance or conversion consist?

In two things: the dying of the old man1 and the quickening of the new.

1 Romans 6:4-6. Ephesians 4:22-24. Colossians 3:5-10. I Corinthians 5:7

89. What is the dying of the old man?

Heartfelt sorrow for sin, causing us to hate and turn from it always more and more.1

1 Romans 8:13. Joel 2:13.

90. What is the quickening of the new man?

Heartfelt joy in God through Christ,1 causing us to take delight in living according to the will of God in all good works.2

1 Romans 5:1. Romans 14:17. Isaiah 57:15. 2 Romans 8:10,11. Galatians 2:20. * Romans 7:22.

91. What are good works?

Those only which proceed from true faith,1 and are done according to the Law of God,2 unto His glory;3 and not such as rest on our own opinion or the commandments of men.4

1 Romans 14:23. 2 1 Samuel 15:22. Ephesians 2:10. 3 I Corinthians 10:31. 4 Deuteronomy 12:32. Ezekiel 20:18,20. Isaiah 29:13. Matthew 15:9. * Numbers 15:39.

1.       Introduction

1.       Repentance and Faith

1.       Law and Gospel

2.       Repentance, Penitence and Penance

2.       "Conversion" in the Reformation and After

1.       Before Dort

2.       After Dort

2.       Mortification

1.       Old Man/New Man (Rom 6.4-6)

1.       Undoing What We Were in Adam

2.       Becoming What We Are in Christ

2.       Put Off/Put On (Col 3.5-10; Eph 4.22-24)

1.       Heartfelt Sorrow for Sin (Rom 8.13)

2.       Rending Hearts and the New Covenant (Joel 2.13)

3.       Vivification

1.       Heartfelt Joy in Christ (Rom 5.1; 8.10,11; Gal 2.20)

2.       Delighting and Living (Rom 7.22)

4.       Faith Working Through Love (Gal 5.16)

1.       Christ's workmanship...that we should live (Eph 2.10)

2.       Ad Gloriam Dei (1 Cor 10.31)

3.       The Freedom of the Christian (1520)

1.       According to God's Revelation (Gal 5.1)

2.       Not Human Opinion (Col 2.8)

3.       According to the Gospel and the Spirit (Gal 5.13-18)

92. What is the Law of God?

God spoke all these words, saying:

First Commandment

I am the Lord your God, which have brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, you shall have no other gods before me.

Second Commandment

You shall not make for yourself any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: you shall not bow down yourself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of those that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of those who love me, and keep my commandments.

Third Commandment

You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.

Fourth Commandment

Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shall you labor, and do all your work: but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord your God: in it you shall not do any work, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your manservant, nor your maidservant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger that is within your gates: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

Fifth Commandment

Honor your father and your mother that your days may be long upon the land which the Lord your God is giving you.

Sixth Commandment

You shall not kill.

Seventh Commandment

You shall not commit adultery.

Eighth Commandment

You shall not steal.

Ninth Commandment

You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

Tenth Commandment

You shall not covet your neighbor's house, you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is your neighbor's.

See Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5. * Matthew 5:17-19. * Romans 10:5. * Romans 3:31. * Psalm 119:9.

93. How are these Commandments divided?

Into two tables:1 the first of which teaches in four commandments, what duties we owe to God; the second, in six, what duties we owe to our neighbor.2

1 Exodus 34:28. Deuteronomy 4:13. 2 Matthew 22:37-40.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Reformed v. Lutheran and Roman Numbering

1.       They combine our first and second commandments

2.       They divide our tenth commandment into two

3.       Benefits of our order

2.       The Threefold Division of the Law

1.       Civil

2.       Ceremonial

3.       Moral

3.       The Fulfillment (Matt 5.17-20)

1.       Of the Civil Law (Col. 2:14; WCF 19.3-4)

2.       Of the Ceremonial Law (Acts 10.11-15)

3.       Of the Moral Law (Gal 3.13)

4.       The Three Uses of the Law

1.       The pedagogical use.

1.       The absolute holiness and justice of God's law

2.       Teaching us the greatness of our sin and misery

3.       Total inability

2.       The civil use

1.       Christendom

2.       Post-Christendom

3.       General Equity

4.       Natural Law/Justice

3.       The Normative (Ethical) Use

5.       Tables v. Copies

1.       Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Pattern

1.       Preamble (I am Yahweh your God)

2.       historical prologue (Who brought you out of Egypt...")

3.       Suzerain-Vassal Relations

4.       Stipulations with selected blessings and curses.

5.       Publication

6.       Witnesses

7.       Blessings and curses

2.       Covenant and Canon (Deut 31.24-26)

3.       The Inviolability of the Covenant Documents (Deut 4.2; 12.32; Rev 22.18-19)

2.       The First Table (Matthew 22.37-38)

1.       Loving Yahweh our God (Deut 6.5)

2.       With All Our Faculties

3.       The First and Greatest Commandment

3.       The Second Table (Matthew 22.39-40)

1.       Loving Our Neighbor as One's Self (Lev 19.18)

2.       Love Fulfills the Law (Rom 13.10)

3.       Neighbor love fulfills the Law (Gal 5.14)

4.       The Royal Law (James 2.8)

94. What does God require in the first Commandment?


That on peril of my soul's salvation, I avoid and flee all idolatry,1 sorcery, enchantments,2 invocation of saints or of other creatures;3 and that I rightly acknowledge the only true God,4 trust in him alone,5 with all humility6 and patience7 expect all good from Him only,8 and love,9 fear10 and honor 11 Him with my whole heart; so as rather to renounce all creatures than to do the least thing against His will.12


1 I Corinthians 10:7,14. 2 Leviticus 19:31. Deuteronomy 18:10-12. 3 Matthew 4:10; Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:8,9; 4 John 17:3. 5 Jeremiah 17:5. 6 I Peter 5:5,6. 7 Hebrews 10:36. Colossians 1:10b,11. Romans 5:3,4. I Corinthians 10:10. 8 Psalm 104:27-30. Isaiah 45:6b,7. James 1:17. 9 Deuteronomy 6:5. 10 Deuteronomy 6:2. Psalm 111:10. Proverbs 9:10. Matthew 10:28. 11 Deuteronomy 10:20. 12 Matthew 5:29,30. Matthew 10:37. Acts 5:29.

95. What is idolatry?

Idolatry is to conceive or have something else on which to place our trust instead of, or besides the one true God who has revealed Himself in His Word.1


1 Ephesians 5:5. Philippians 3:19. Ephesians 2:12. John 2:23. 2 John 9. John 5:23. * Psalm 81:8,9. * Matthew 6:24. * Psalm 62:5-7. * Psalm 73:25,26.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Parts of the Command (Eph 4.22,24)

1.       Positive (the thing to do, put on)

2.       Negative (the thing not to do, put off)

2.       Loving God Alone

1.       As Creator

2.       As Redeemer

3.       Idolatry Then and Now

1.       Down to eat and up to play (1 Cor 10.7,14; Ex 32.6)

2.       The idol factory of the heart (Inst 1.5.4)

2.       For the Love of God (1 John 5.2)

1.       Trusting God Alone (faith)

1.       Humility

2.       Patience

2.       Expect All Good Only

3.       The Fear of God

4.       Honoring the King

5.       Wholehearted Devotion (Matt 5.29-30)

6.       Acknowledging God Alone (soli Deo gloria)

7.       Doing His Will

1.       Intellect

2.       Will

3.       Affections

3.       Renouncing All Creatures (Rom 1.25)

1.       The Jeopardy of Idolatry (Lev 19; Deut 18)

1.       The Challenge to the Covenant Canon

2.       Attempts to leverage God's prerogative

1.       Sorcery

2.       Enchantments

3.       Invocation of Saints

2.       The Nature of Idolatry

1.       A False Object of Trust (1 Cor 8.4)

2.       A Figment of Our Imagination

3.       Contrary to the God of Scripture

4.       Futility

 96. What does God require in the second Commandment?

That we in no way make any image of God,1 nor worship Him in any other way than He has commanded us in His Word.2

1 Deuteronomy 4:15-19. Isaiah 40:18,25. Romans 1:22-24. Acts 17:29. 2 1 Samuel 15:23. Deuteronomy 12:30-32. Matthew 15:9. * Deuteronomy 4:23,24. * John 4:24.

 97. May we not make any image at all?

God may not and cannot be imaged in any way; as for creatures, though they may indeed be imaged, yet God forbids the making or keeping any likeness of them, either to worship them, or to serve God by them.1

1 Exodus 23:24,25. Exodus 34:13,14. Deuteronomy 7:5. Deuteronomy 12:3. Deuteronomy 16:22. 2 Kings 18:4. * John 1:18.

98. But may not pictures be tolerated in churches as books for the people?

No, for we should not be wiser than God, who will not have His people taught by dumb idols,1 but by the lively preaching of His word.2

1 Jeremiah 10:8. Habakkuk 2:18,19. 2 2 Peter 1:19. 2 Timothy 3:16,17. * Romans 10:17.

1.        Introduction

1.       Principles of Worship

1.       Antithesis Principle

1.       Preparing to destroy the Canaanites (Deut 12.28-32)

2.       Do not add or take a word

3.       Covenantal Word and Canon (Rev 22.18-19)

2.       The Regulative Principle

1.       Lutheran/Anglican/Evangelical: "May"

2.       Reformed: "Must"

1.       What does God require?

2.       Only what God requires

3.       Holiness

1.       Uzzah's good intentions (1 Chron 13:9-10)

1.       The error of the cart

2.       The danger of Yahweh

2.       Strange fire (Lev 10.1-3)

 

3.       Elements and Circumstances

1.       Elements are essential (sine qua non)

1.       Word

1.       Read

2.       Summarized (Confession; Deut 6:4)

3.       Preached

2.       Psalm/Song

3.       Sacrament

4.       Prayer

2.       Circumstances are indifferent (adiaphora)

0.       Time

1.       Place

2.       Posture

3.       Vestments

4.       Decently (1 Cor 14.40)

5.       With Reverence and Awe (Hebrews 12.28)

6.       Confessional Teaching

1.       Belgic Confession Art. 7: For since the whole manner of worship which God requires of us is written in them at large, it is unlawful for any one, though an apostle, to teach otherwise than we are now taught in the Holy Scriptures.

2.       Belgic Conf. Art. 32: Therefore we reject all human innovations and all laws imposed on us, in our worship of God, which bind and force our consciences in any way.

0.       Worship is not the playground of the imagination

1.       Freedom from tyranny

3.       Word and Spirit Principle

1.       Spirit without Word is fanaticism, mysticism, subjectivism

2.       Word without Spirit is lifeless

4.       The Dialogical Principle (Ex 19.7-8)

1.       God speaks

2.       The people respond

3.       With gratitude (Ps 18)

5.       The Perspicuity Principle

1.       No vain babbling (Matt 6.7)

2.       Unintelligible speech is unedifying (1 Cor 14)

6.       The Trinitarian Principle

1.       "In the Spirit and in the Truth" (John 4.23)

2.       "In the name of the Father, and of the Son and the Holy Spirit" (Matthew 28)

7.       Law/Gospel Principle

1.       Rom 3.20-21;

2.       1 Cor 15.2;

3.       1 Pet 1.25

4.       Gal 3.7-14

8.       Word & Spirit Principle (Acts2.42)

1.       Eph 6.17;

2.       1 Thess 1.5

2.       The History of Worship

1.       Old Testament

1.       Circumstances

1.       On the sabbath (Ex 20.8; Isa 58; HC 103)

2.       Morning and evening (Gen 1.5; Ex 29.38-43; Ps 141.2; Ps 92.3; 2 Kings 16.15; 1 Chron 16.40; 2 Chron 2.4; 2 Chron 31.3; Ezra 3.3)

2.       Elements

1.       Sacrifice (Ex 20.24; Heb 10.1)

2.       Sacraments

0.       Circumcision

1.       Feasts (Passover, Tabernacles etc)

3.       Prayer (1 Chron 8.30)

4.       Word (Deut 31.9-13, 44-47)

5.       Psalm (Deut 31.30-43; Zech 2.10)

2.       New Testament

1.       Circumstances

1.       Assembly (1 Cor 11.18)

2.       On the Lord's Day (Jn 20:1; Acts 20:7; Rev 1:10)

3.       Foreign language (glw/ssa) and interpretation (e`rmhnei,a,) (1 Cor 14.26)

4.       In houses etc. (Col 4:15)

2.       Elements

1.       Psalm (1 Cor 14:26)

0.       Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs (Col 3:16-17; Eph 5:18-20)

1.       Matt 26.30 "having sung..."

2.       Acts 16.25

3.       Hebrews 2.12

4.       Magnificat (Luke 1.46-55)

5.       Benedictus (Luke 1:68-79)

6.       Nunc Dimmitis (Luke 2.29-32)

7.       Carmen Christi Phil 2.5-11

8.       Imago Dei (Col 1.15-20)

9.       Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus (Rev 4.8)

10.   Dignus es Domine (Rev 4.11)

11.   Novum Canticum (Rev 5.9-10)

12.   Dignus est agnus (Rev 5.12-13)

13.   Salus Deo Nostro (Rev 7.10)

14.   Benedictio (Rev 7.10)

15.   Canticum Mosi et Agni (Rev 15.3-4)

2.       Word

0.       Teaching (didach,; 1 Cor 14:26)

1.       Preaching (2 Tim 4.2)

2.       Revelation (avpoka,luyij; 1 Cor 14:26)

3.       Reading of Scripture (1 Tim 4.13)

3.       Prayer (1 Tim 2.1)

4.       Sacrament (Matt 28.18-20; 1 Cor 10; 11.18-34)

3.       Synagogue

1.       Circumstances

1.       Quorum (10 adult males)

2.       Morning and evening services

3.       Standing for prayer

2.       Synagogic Liturgy (Mishnah)

1.       Invocation ("Bless the Lord who is to be blessed")

2.       Shema (Deut 6.4: "Hear O Israel, Yahweh our God, Yahweh is one")

0.       Decalogue recited

1.       (with the blessing ("Ement ve emunah" - "True and trustworthy...")

3.       Eighteen Benedictions/Berakot (Tefillah)

4.       Aaronic Blessing (Num 6.24-6)

5.       Readings from Torah and Nabim (Luke 4.16-19)

6.       Sermon (Mk 1.21-22; 6.2; John 6:59)

7.nbsp;      Psalms

4.       Early Post-Apostolic Pattern

1.       Circumstances

0.       Two services

1.       Ps 63 (AM service; Matins)

2.       Ps 141 (PM service; Vespers)

1.       Elements

1.       Psalms/Songs (a capella)

2.       Scripture

1.       Read

2.       Summarized/confessed

3.       Preached

3.       Prayer

4.       Sacraments (2)

2.       Evidence from the Didache (c.110; Antioch?)

1.       Abstain from meat offered to idols (6.30);

2.       Baptize in the name of the Trinity, in running or poured water, accompanied by a fast (7.1-8:1);

3.       Lord's Prayer (8.2-3) thrice daily;

4.       Agape (agaph) Feast

5.       Eucharist

0.       "9:1 But concerning the Eucharist, after this fashion give ye thanks.

1.       9:2 First, concerning the cup. We thank thee, our Father, for the holy vine, David thy Son, which thou hast made known unto us through Jesus Christ thy Son; to thee be the glory for ever.

2.       9:3 And concerning the broken bread. We thank thee, our Father, for the life and knowledge which thou hast made known unto us through Jesus thy Son; to thee be the glory for ever.

3.       9:4 As this broken bread was once scattered on the mountains, and after it had been brought together became one, so may thy Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth unto thy kingdom; for thine is the glory, and the power, through Jesus Christ, for ever.

4.       9:5 And let none eat or drink of your Eucharist but such as have been baptized into the name of the Lord, for of a truth the Lord hath said concerning this, Give not that which is holy unto dogs."

6.       Prayer after the Supper (10.1-7)

7.       Preachers

0.       "11:1 Whosoever, therefore, shall come and teach you all these things aforesaid, him do ye receive;

1.       11:2 but if the teacher himself turn and teach another doctrine with a view to subvert you, hearken not to him; but if he come to add to your righteousness, and the knowledge of the Lord, receive him as the Lord.

2.       11:3 But concerning the apostles and prophets, thus do ye according to the doctrine of the Gospel.

3.       11:4 Let every apostle who cometh unto you be received as the Lord.

4.       11:5 He will remain one day, and if it be necessary, a second; but if he remain three days, he is a false prophet.

5.       11:6 And let the apostle when departing take nothing but bread until he arrive at his resting-place; but if he ask for money, he is a false prophet.

6.       11:7 And ye shall not tempt or dispute with any prophet who speaketh in the spirit; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven.

7.       11:8 But not every one who speaketh in the spirit is a prophet, but he is so who hath the disposition of the Lord; by their dispositions they therefore shall be known, the false prophet and the prophet.

8.       11:9 And every prophet who ordereth in the spirit that a table shall be laid, shall not eat of it himself, but if he do otherwise, he is a false prophet;

9.       11:10 and every prophet who teacheth the truth, if he do not what he teacheth is a false prophet;

10.   11:11 and every prophet who is approved and true, and ministering in the visible mystery of the Church, but who teacheth not others to do the things that he doth himself, shall not be judged of you, for with God lieth his judgment, for in this manner also did the ancient prophets.

11.   11:12 But whoever shall say in the spirit, Give me money, or things of that kind, listen not to him; but if he tell you concerning others that are in need that ye should give unto them, let no one judge him."

8.       Lord's Day: 14:1 "But on the Lord's day, after that ye have assembled together, break bread and give thanks, having in addition confessed your sins, that your sacrifice may be pure."

3.       The Evidence from Pliny the Younger (111-113 AD)

1.       To the Emperor Trajan (10.96)

2.       Re Christians in Asia Minor (Bithynia; Central Turkey; to whom 1 & 2 Peter had been written)

3.       Punishing and martyring Christians

4.       " that the sum and substance of their fault or error had been that they were accustomed to meet on a fixed day before dawn and sing responsively a hymn to Christ as to a god, and to bind themselves by oath, not to some crime, but not to commit fraud, theft, or adultery, not falsify their trust, nor to refuse to return a trust when called upon to do so. When this was over, it was their custom to depart and to assemble again to partake of food--but ordinary and innocent food."

4.       Justin Martyr's Apology, 65-67 (c. 140)

1.       Circumstances

0.       Morning and evening worship

1.       "President" (prestwj)

2.       Sunday

2.       Elements

0.       Greeting

1.       Scripture ("memoirs of the apostles")

2.       Sermon

3.       Prayer (standing)

4.       Supper (eucaristia; "The body and blood of Christ")

5.       [Justin also includes a liturgy for baptism]

5.       The Return of the Temple

1.       Altar/Priest/Sacerdotalism/Sacrifice

2.       Images for the Word ("Books for the people," Gregory I)

3.       The drama of the mass for the drama of the story

4.       Justification by sanctification

5.       From 2 to 7 sacraments

6.       From people to choirs/priest

7.       From plain song to polyphony (by 12th century)

8.       From Psalms to hymns

6.       In the Reformation

1.       From Altar to Pulpit

2.       From Sacrifice to Feast

3.       From License to Freedom (BC 32)

4.       From Gregory to David

1.       Genevan Psalter (1542-62)

2.       "Genevan jigs" (Elizabeth I)

3.       The Dort Psalter (1 Dutch hymn)

7.       In the 18th-19th Centuries

1.       Pietism (from objective means to subjective experience)

2.       Watts' paraphrase (1719)

3.       From Psalms to Revival Tunes

4.       The eclipse of psalmody

8.       Today

1.       1912 Psalter

2.       1932 and 1959 Psalter-Hymnals

3.       The recovery of psalmody (and inspired songs)

4.       C. O. Art. 39 says,

1.       The 150 Psalms shall have the principal place in the singing of the churches. Hymns which faithfully and fully reflect the teaching of the Scripture as expressed in the Three Forms of Unity may be sung, provided they are approved by the Consistory.

2.       Worshiping the Right God Rightly

1.       God's Attributes

1.       Communicable

2.       Incommunicable

2.       Representations v. Reality

1.       Gregory I: "Books for the people"

2.       Second Helvetic Confession (1561/66) Art. 4.3. The Scriptures of the Laity. Furthermore, wherever we turn our eyes, we see the living and true creatures of God which, if they be observed, as is proper, make a much more vivid impression on the beholders than all the images or vain, motionless, feeble and dead pictures made by men, of which the prophet truly said: "They have eyes, but do not see" (Ps. 115:5). Lactantius. Therefore we approved the judgment of Lactantius, an ancient writer, who says: "Undoubtedly no religion exists where there is an image."

3.       Sec. Helv. 4.4 We also assert that the blessed bishop Epiphanius did right when, finding on the doors of a church a veil on which was painted a picture supposedly of Christ or some saint, he ripped it down and took it away, because to see a picture of a man hanging in the Church of Christ was contrary to the authority of Scripture....

4.       The purposes of pictures

1.       Worship/Inspiration (cult)

2.       Instruction (culture)

5.       Iconodules v. Iconoclasts (8th-9th centuries)

1.       Icon worshipers (Nestorians)

2.       Icons and the person of Christ

6.       The Reformed Rejection of Images

1.       The Creator/creature distinction

1.       Creatures may be imaged, but not worshiped

2.       The Creator may never be imaged.

3.       Second Helvetic Confession (1561/66) Art. 4.2 Although Christ assumed human nature, yet he did not on that account assume it in order to provide a model for carvers and painters. He denied that he had come "to abolish the law and the prophets" (Matt. 5:17). But images are forbidden by the law and the prophets (Deut. 4:15; Isa. 44:9). He denied that his bodily presence would be profitable for the Church, and promised that he would be near us by his Spirit forever (John 16:7). Who, therefore, would believe that a shadow or likeness of his body would contribute any benefit to the pious? (2 Cor. 5:5). Since he abides in us by his Spirit, we are therefore the temple of God (2 Cor. 3:16). But "what agreement has the temple of God with idols?" (2 Cor. 6:16). Images of Saints. And since the blessed spirits and saints in heaven, while they lived here on earth, rejected all worship of themselves (Acts 3:12f.; 14:11ff.; Rev. 14:7; 22:9) and condemned images, shall anyone find it likely that the heavenly saints and angels are pleased with their own images before which men kneel, uncover their heads, and bestow other honors? But in fact in order to instruct men in religion and to remind them of divine things and of their salvation, the Lord commanded the preaching of the Gospel (Mark 16:15)--not to paint and to teach the laity by means of pictures. Moreover, he instituted sacraments, but nowhere did he set up images.

2.       Pictures and the Doctrine of Christ

1.       Two Natures

2.       One Person

3.       The incarnation

1.       A cause for worship

2.       Not a license for icons

3.       Denial of pictures is no more denial of humanity

7.       Word Signs v. Picture Signs

1.       Picture signs necessarily distort in ways word signs do not

2.       No picture of the 2nd person is ever accurate

3.       Every image of the second person is necessarily the product of the human imagination

4.       Jesus and the Apostles left us the Word not pictures

5.       Pictures (and films) are theology of glory, word is theology of the cross (1 Cor 1-3; Romans 10; 1 Peter 1.8)

3.       The Word at Sinai

1.       The same Word who spoke at Sinai became incarnate

2.       The Son prohibits images

3.       The Word Incarnate

4.       Word and Sacraments: God's Pictures for Us

3.       Our Liturgy

1.       Decently and orderly (1 Cor 14.40)

2.       Application of Principles and Patterns

1.       Votum (vow)

2.       Call to worship and respose

3.       Law

4.       Confession of sins

5.       Declaration of Absolution/Pardon (CO Art. 38)

1.       Ministerial

2.       Not Magisterial

6.       Sermon

7.       Prayer

8.       Response of Praise

9.       Benediction

4.       The Worship Wars

1.       Principle v. Preference

2.       Sacred Covenant Assembly v. Enthusiasm (Heb 12.18-20)

3.       A Holy Priesthood (1 Peter 2.5)

4.       God in Our Midst (1 Cor 14.25; Genesis 17:7-10; John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7; Matthew 28:20)

1.       Public v. Private Piety (1 Cor 11.10)

2.       Age of the tune adiaphora

3.       Reverently joyful worship

99. What is required in the third Commandment?

That we must not by cursing,1 or by false swearing,2 nor yet by unnecessary oaths,3 profane or abuse the name of God; nor even by our silence and connivance be partakers of these horrible sins in others; and in sum, that we use the Holy Name of God in no other way than with fear and reverence,4 so that He may be rightly confessed5 and worshipped6 by us, and be glorified in all our words and works.7

1 Leviticus 24:10-16. 2 Leviticus 19:12. 3 Matthew 5:37; James 5:12. 4 Isaiah 45:23. 5 Matthew 10:32. 6 1 Timothy 2:8. 7 Romans 2:24; I Timothy 6:1; Colossians 3:16,17; * 1 Peter 3:15.

 

100. Is the profaning of God's name, by swearing and cursing, so grievous a sin, that His wrath is kindled against those also who do not help as much as they can to hinder and forbid the same?

Yes truly,1 for no sin is greater and more provoking to God than the profaning of His name; wherefore He even commanded it to be punished with death.2

1 Leviticus 5:1. 2 Leviticus 24:15,16; * Leviticus 19:12; *
Proverbs 29:24,25.

101. But may we swear reverently by the Name of God?

Yes, when the magistrate requires it, or when it may be necessary otherwise, to maintain and promote fidelity and truth to the glory of God and our neighbor's good; for such an oath is grounded in God's Word,1 and therefore was rightly used by the saints in the Old and New Testament.2

1 Deuteronomy 10:20; Isaiah 48:1; Hebrews 6:16. 2Genesis 21:24; Genesis 31:53,54; Joshua 9:15,19; 1 Samuel 24:22; I Kings 1:29; Romans 1:9.

102. May we swear by the saints or by any other creatures?

No, for a lawful oath is a calling upon God, that He, as the only searcher of hearts, may bear witness to the truth, and punish me if I swear falsely;1 which honor is due to no creature.2

1 2 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Matthew 5:34,36. * Jeremiah 5:7. * Isaiah 65:16.

1.        Introduction

1.       The Anabaptist/Radical Rejection of Oaths

2.       The Reformed View

1.       Belgic Confession

2.       Calvin

3.       Ursinus

2.       Oaths in Scripture

1.       The Covenantal Context

2.       The Uniqueness of God's Name

1.       Considered as Creator

2.       Considered as Redeemer

3.       Sins of Commission

1.       Vain Oaths

2.       Cursining

4.       Sins of Omission

1.       Connivance

2.       Silence

103. What does God require in the fourth Commandment?

In the first place, God wills that the ministry of the Gospel and schools be maintained,1 and that I, especially on the day of rest, diligently attend church,2 to learn the Word of God,3 to use the Holy Sacraments,4 to call publicly upon the Lord,5 and to give Christian alms.6 In the second place, that all the days of my life I rest form my evil works, allow the Lord to work in me by His Spirit, and thus begin in this life the everlasting Sabbath.7

1 Titus 1:5. I Timothy 3:14,15. I Timothy 4:13,14. I Timothy 5:17. I Corinthians 9:11,13,14. 2 2 Timothy 2:2. 2 Timothy 2:15. Psalm 40:10,11. Psalm 68:26. Acts 2:42,46. 3 1 Corinthians 14:19,29,31. 4 1 Corinthians 11:33. 5 1 Timothy 2:1,2. 1 Timothy 2:8-10. 1 Corinthians 14:16. 6 1 Corinthians 16:2. 7 Isaiah 66:23. * Galatians 6:6. * Acts 20:7. * Hebrews 4:9,10.

1.       Introduction

1.       Sabbath Controversies

1.       Legalism v. Antinomianism

2.       Christian liberty v. Meddling

3.       Ethical Continuity and Discontuity in the Covenant of Grace

2.       Practical & Historical Differences

1.       Scriptural/Exegetical Considerations

1.       In Creation: Gen 1.27

1.       In his own image...he created them.

2.       On the seventh day he rested from all his work.

3.       And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy

2.       In the Theocracy Exodus 20.8-11

1.       vv.8-10a: Because the Sabbath Belongs to God

1.       Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.

1.       Six days you shall labor and do all your work,

2.       But the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God.

2.       v.8: God Has Set it Apart---->As in the Garden

3.       God Has Given us Six Days to Serve (Ebed) our Earthly Masters

4.       We Can't Change it to Fit Our Desires--->OT Sabbath breaking death!

2.       vv.10b-11a: Because God Made us to Rest

3.       v.11a: You Are God's Image--->Genesis 2:2

4.       Lord's Day Means Renewal & Revitalization

5.       Lord's Day Means Relief

1.       For You

2.       For Family

3.       For Workers

4.       For aliens

6.       Lord's Day = Grace & Mercy

1.       Sabbath for the land Ex 23:10-12

2.       You were slaves... Deut 5:15

3.       v.11b: Because God's Rest is Blessed

1.       Lord's Day = Picture of Heaven--->Isaiah 66:23

2.       In the Prophets

3.       Lord's Day Not Supposed to Oppress But Set Free--->Neh 8:8-12

4.       In the New Covenant

1.       Healing on the Sabbath Matt 12:1-12

2.       Lord's Day = Resurrection--->John 20:19

3.       Matt 28 "after the Sabbath" (Mark in 16.1)

4.       First Day (Acts 20.1)

5.       Lord's Day = Fellowship

0.       Acts 2.42; Acts 16:13; Acts 20:7

1.       Rom 14:5-8

2.       1 Cor 16:2

3.       Col 2:13-17

6.       The Eschatological Sabbath Rest in Jesus Christ: Hebrews 3.12-4:11

7.       The Apocalyptic Lord's Day - Rev 1:10

4.       Confessional Teaching

1.       Augsburg Confession (1530)

2.       Luther's Larger Catechism (1529)

3.       The Catechism of the Church of Geneva (1545)

4.       Scots Confession (1560)

5.       Second Helvetic Confession (1561/66). Chapter. 24

6.       Belgic Confession Art. 25: The Abolishing of the Ceremonial Law

7.       Post-Acta of Dort (1619); Session 164, May 17, PM

1.       In the fourth Commandment of the divine law, part is ceremonial, part is moral.

2.       The rest of the seventh day after creation was ceremonial and its rigid observation peculiarly prescribed to the Jewish people.

3.       Moral in fact, because the fixed and enduring day of the worship of God is appointed, for as much rest as is necessary for the worship of God and holy meditation of him.

4.       With the Sabbath of the Jews having been abrogated, the Lord's Day is solemnly sanctified by Christians.

5.       From the time of the Apostles this day was always observed in the ancient Catholic Church.

6.       This same day is thus consecrated for divine worship, so that in it one might rest from all servile works (with these excepted, which are works of charity and pressing necessity) and from those recreations which impede the worship of God./i>

8.       Irish Articles (1615) 10. Of the Service of God

9.       Westminster Confession WCF 21.5-8 On the Sabbath

10.   Directory for Public Worship: Of the Sanctification of the Lord's Day

5.       Historical Considerations

1.       Calvin

2.       Ursinus

3.       Wollebius

4.       Owen

5.       Hodge

6.       Murray

6.       Dogmatic/Ethical Formulae

1.       Exact Equivalent to the Jewish Sabbath?

2.       New Covenant Sabbath/Lord's Day

3.       Sabbath as type of salvation/rest

4.       Sabbath as exodus

5.       Sabbath as jubilee

6.       Sabbath as opportunity to know God

7.       Objections and Responses

1.       Galatians 4.10: "days, months, seasons and years".

2.       Colossians 2.13-17: "feast days or new moons or sabbaths"

3.       "human regulations" and "self imposed worship," "stoicheia" of this world.

1.       "days, months, seasons and years" in LXX

2.       The Sabbath v. "sabbaths" "new moons" etc

104. What does God require in the fifth Commandment.

That I show all honor, love and faithfulness to my father and mother,1 and to all in authority over me;2 submit myself with due obedience to all their good instruction and correction, and also bear patiently with their infirmities, since it is God's will to govern us by their hand.3

1 Ephesians 6:22; Ephesians 6:1-6; Colossians 3:18,20-24; Proverbs 1:8,9; Proverbs 4:1; Proverbs 15:20; Proverbs 20:20; Exodus 21:17; Genesis 9:24,25. 2 Romans 13:1; 1 Peter 2:18; Romans 13:2-7; Matthew 22:21. 3 Ephesians 6:4,9; Colossians 3:19,21; * Proverbs 30:17; Deuteronomy 27:16; *Deuteronomy 32:46; *Proverbs 13:24; *I Timothy 2:1,2.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Problems of Authority

1.       The Cultural Shift from Antiquity to Modernity and Post-Modernity

2.       Its Necessity

3.       Its Source

4.       Its Benefits

5.       Its Nature

6.       Its Use

7.       Its Abuse

2.       Authority and the Constitution of Creation

1.       Order in heaven

2.       Order on earth

3.       Humanity as Analogue to God (Gen 1:26)

1.       Man as image-bearer

2.       The Exercise of the Image

2.       Honoring Parents (Eph 6:1-6; Col 3:20)

1.       Parents as Patterns (Prov 23:22)

2.       Parents as Authorities

3.       The Meaning of Filial Rebellion (Ex 21:5, 17)

3.       Honoring Authorities

1.       Civil (Rom 13:1-7)

2.       Ecclesiastical (Heb 13:17)

3.       Application Within the Commandment

4.       Resistance Theory

5.       Self-Restraint by Authorities (Luke 22:25-26; Eph 6:4, 9; Col 3:19-21)

4.       Submitting and Bearing Patiently

1.       To Good Instruction

2.       The Humanity of Authorities (1 Tim 2:1-2)

3.       To God's Preceptive and Decretive Will

105. What does God require in the sixth Commandment?

That I do not revile, hate, insult or kill my neighbor either in thought, word, or gesture, much less in deed, whether by myself or by another,1 but lay aside all desire of revenge;2 moreover, that I do not harm myself, nor wilfully run into any danger.3 Wherefore also to restrain murder the magistrate is armed with the sword.4

1 Matthew 5:21,22. Matthew 26:52. Genesis 9:6. 2 Ephesians 4:26. Romans 12:19. Matthew 5:25. Matthew 18:35. 3 Matthew 4:7. Romans 13:14. Colossians 2:23. 4 Exodus 21:14. Matthew 18:6,7.

106. Does this Commandment speak only of killing?

No, but in forbidding murder, God teaches us that He abhors its very root, namely: envy,1 hatred,2 anger,3 and desire of revenge; and that in His sight all these are hidden murder.4

1 Romans 1:28-32. 2 I John 2:9-11. 3 James 2:13. Galatians 5:19-21. 4 I John 3:15. * James 3:16. * James 1:19.

107. But is this all that is required , that we do not kill our neighbor?

No, for in condemning envy, hatred, and anger, God requires us to love our neighbor as ourselves,1 to show patience, peace, meekness,2 mercy,3 and kindness4 toward him, and to prevent his hurt as much as possible;5 also to do good even unto our enemies.6

1 Matthew 7:12. Matthew 22:39. 2 Ephesians 4:2. Galatians 6:1,2. Romans 12:18. 3 Matthew 5:7. Luke 6:36. 4 Romans 12:10. 5 Exodus 23:5. 6 Matthew 5:44,45. Romans 12:20,21. * Colossians 3:12-14. * Matthew 5:9.

1.       Introduction

1.       The Various Views

1.       Anabaptist; Pacificist

2.       Theonomy

3.       Confessional Protestant

2.       Killing and Murder

1.       (Ratsach)

2.       Murder (Ex 20.13)

3.       Manslaying (Nu 35.6)

3.       Two Kingdoms: Private Persons and Public Office

1.       Private Justice Prohibited (Gen 9.6)

2.       Public Justice Required (Rom 13.4; 1 Peter 2.14; 4:15)

2.       The Root of Murder

1.       Hatred (1 Jn 3:15)

2.       Thought, Word, Deed (Mt 5.22)

3.       Revenge (Rom 12;18-19)

3.       A Brief History of Murder

1.       Cain (Gen 4:3-16)

2.       Zechariah Son of Berechiah (Mt 23.35; 2 Chron 24:20-21)

3.       Jesus (1 Thess 2:14-16; Acts 5:30)

4.       The Antithesis

1.       Neighbor Love (James 2.8; Gal 5:14; Rom 13:9)

2.       Patience, Peace, Meekness, Mercy, Kindness (Gal 5:22; Ps 37:1-1; Matt 5:5; 11:29; 1 Peter 3:4)

3.      Enemy Love (Matt 5.44-5; Rom 12.20-21)

  108. What does the seventh Commandment teach us?

That all unchastity is accursed of God,1 and that we should therefore loathe it with our whole heart,2 and live chastely and modestly,3 whether in holy wedlock or in single life.4

1 Lev 18:27, 28. 2 Jude 22, 23. 3 1 Thess 4:3-5. 4 Heb 13:4. 1 Cor 7:1-4.

  1. Chastity: a lost concept defined
  2. Unchastity
  3. Loathing a pet sin of this age
  4. In Two Estates
  1. Married
  2. Single

109. Does God forbid nothing more in this commandment than adultery and such gross sins? 

 

Since both our holy body and soul are temples of this Holy Spirit, it is His will that we keep both pure and holy. Therefore, He forbids all unchaste actions, gestures, words,1 thoughts, desires,2 and whatever may entice thereto.3

1 Eph 5:3,4. 1 Cor 6:18-20. 2 Matt  5:27-30. 3 Eph 5:18,19. 1 Cor 15:33.

  1. Body and Soul
    1. "I am not my own..."
    2. "You were bought with a price"
      1. 1 Cor 6:20
      2. 1 Cor 7:23
    3. Temple of the HS (1 Cor 6:19)
  2. Forbidden
    1. Unchastity
    2. of thought, word, deed
    3. enticements

    110. What does God forbid in the eighth Commandment?

    God forbids not only such theft1 and robbery2 as are punished by this magistrate, but God views as theft also all wicked tricks and devices, whereby we seek to get our neighbor's goods, whether by force or by deceit,3 such as unjust weights,4 ells, measures,5 goods, coins usury,6 or by any means forbidden of God; also a covetousness7 and the misuse and waste of His gifts.8

    1 1 Cor 6:10. 2 1 Cor 5:10. 3 Luke 3:14. 1 Thess 4:6. 4 Prov 11:1. Prov 16:11. 5 Ezek 45:9,10. Deut 25:13-15. 6 Ps 15:5. Luke 6:35. 7 1 Cor 6:10. 8 Prov 5:10. * 1 Tim 6:10. * John 6:12.

    1. Civil Theft
      1. Creational law
        1. Outward theft
        2. "You shall not steal" (Exod 20; Deut 5)
        3. Punishable by the magistrate
        4. Rom 13:19; Eph 4:28
        5. Wicked tricks and devices
        6. "sharp business practices"
        7. Unjust weights etc.
      2. Inward Theft
        1. Coveteousness
        2. Misuse and waste of his gifts
          1. sloth
          2. gambling

      111. But what does God require of you in this commandment?

      That I further my neighbor's good where I can and may, deal with him as I would have others deal with me,1 and labor faithfully, so that I may be able to help the poor in their need.2

      1 Matt  7:12. 2 Eph 4:28. * Phil 2:4. * Gen 3:19. * 1 Tim 6:6,7.

      1. The Positive Requirement:
        1. Love your neighbor
        2. As yourself
      2. Further His Good
      3. Labor Faithfully: The Moral Obligation of Labor
      4. To Aid the Poor

    112. What does the ninth Commandment require.

    That I bear false witness against no one,1 wrest no one's words,2 be no backbiter or slanderer,3 join in condemning no one unheard or rashly;4 but that on pain of God's heavy wrath, I avoid all lying and deceit5 as the very works of the devil;6 and that in matters of judgment and justice and in all other affairs I love, speak honestly and confess the truth;7 also in so far as I can defend and promote my neighbor's good name.8

    1 Prov 19:5,9. 2 Ps 15:3. 3 Rom 1:28-30.4 Matt  7:1, 2. Luke 6:37. 5 John 8:44.6 Prov 12:22. Prov 13:5. 7 1 Cor 13:6. Eph 4:25. 8 1 Pet 4:8. * John 7:24,51. * 1 Pet 2:21, 23. *Col 4:6. * 1 Pet 3:9.

    1. You Shall Not Bear False Witness
      1. Twisting words
      2. Backbiting and slandering
      3. Condemning or joining in condemnation unheard or rashly
    2. On Pain of God's Heavy Wrath
      1. Avoid lying and deceit (as the very works of the devil!)
      2. Care in matters of judgment
        1. Love
        2. Speak honestly
        3. Confess the truth
        4. Promote my neighbor's good name

113. What does the tenth Commandment require?

That not even in the least inclination or thought against any commandment of God ever enter our heart, but that with our whole heart we continually hate all sin and take pleasure in all righteousness.1

1 Rom 7:7,8. * Prov 4:23. * James 1:14,15. * Matt  15:11,19, 20.

 

  1. Prohibition: Not the least inclination
  2. Enjoined: With our whole heart
    1. Hate sin
    2. take pleasure in all righteousness

114. Can those who are converted to God keep these commandments perfectly?

No, but even the holiest men, while in this life, have only a small beginning of this obedience;1 yet so, that with earnest purpose they begin to live not only according to some, but according to all the Commandments of God.2

1 I John 1:8-10. Rom 7:14,15. Ecclesiastes 7:20. 2 Rom 7:22. James 2:10,11. * Job 9:2, 3. * Ps 19:13.

  1. The Moral Necessity of Perfect Obedience
    1. Because of Creation
    2. Because of Redemption
  2. The Impossibility of Perfect Obedience
    1. Contra Wesleyan perfectionism
    2. Contra the Keswick Higher Life Doctrine
    3. Because of the continuing presence of sin
    4. Because sanctification is not yet glorification
  3. The Realism of Romans 7 and the Reformed Doctrine of the Christian Life
    1. Inchoate obedience
    2. "Partly Regenerate"
  4. With Earnest Purpose
    1. Begin to live according to all (not some)
    2. The commandments of God: The objective standard of Christian ethics

115. Why then does God so strictly enjoin the ten Commandments upon us, since in this life no one can keep them?

First, that as long as we live we may learn more and more to know our sinful nature,1 and so the more earnestly seek forgiveness of sins and righteousness in Christ;2 secondly, that without ceasing we diligently ask God for the grace of the Holy Spirit, that we be renewed more and more after the image of God, until we attain the goal of perfection after this life.3

1 I John 1:9. Ps 32:5. 2 Rom 7:24, 25. 3 1 Cor 9:24, 25. Phil 3:12-14. * Matt  5:6. * Ps 51:12.

  1. God Commands the Ten Commandments Upon Christians Strictly
    1. Contra antinomianism (e.g. "New Covenant Theology")
    2. Contra Theonomy/Reconstructionism
      1. Novelty: "The abiding validity of the law of God in exhaustive detail"
      2. We confess: The abiding validity of the moral or natural law of God in exhaustive detail
    3. Contra Moralism
      1. The law is not the instrument or ground of justification
      2. The law is not the instrument or ground of sanctification
  2. The Elenctic Function of the Tertius usus legis
    1. Teaching us the greatness of our sin and misery
    2. Even after we are justified and when we are "in Christ"
      1. The law always remains the law
      2. The law always drives us to Christ
      3. Even when it norms our life in Christ
  3. That We May earnestly seek
    1. Forgiveness of sins
    2. Righteousness in Christ
  4. To Drive us to Pray
    1. For the Grace (gift) of the Spirit
    2. For the Grace of Sanctity
      1. Godliness
      2. Mortification
      3. Vivification
      4. Renewal in imago Christi the head of the new creation
  5. Until Glorification

PRAYER

116. Why is prayer necessary for Christians?

Because it is the chief part of thankfulness which God requires of us;1 and because God will give His grace and Holy Spirit only to those who earnestly and without ceasing beg them of Him, and render thanks unto Him for them.2

1 Ps 50:14,15. 2 Matt  7:7,8. Luke 11:9,10,13. Matt 13:12. * Eph 6:18.

  1. The Necessity of Prayer
    1. Def: Calling upon, recognizing, adoring, confessing, thanking, seeking (ACTS)
    2. For Christians
  2. The Chief Part of Thankfulness
    1. Our Response to God's Grace
    2. Required By God
    3. As a Fruit not a Root of Justification
  3. Because God will Give Grace and Holy Spirit
    1. To those who ask
    2. Earnestly and without ceasing
    3. To those who give thanks
    4. i.e. to believers

117. What belongs to such prayer which is acceptable to God and which He will hear?

First, that with our whole heart1 we call only upon the one true God, who has revealed Himself to us in His Word,2 for all that He has commanded us to ask of Him;3 secondly, that we thoroughly know our need and misery,4 so as to humble ourselves in the presence of His divine Majesty;5 thirdly, that we be firmly assured,6 that notwithstanding our unworthiness, He will, for the sake of Christ our Lord, certainly hear our prayer,7 as He has promised us in His Word.8

1 John 4:22-24. 2 I John 5:14. Rom 8:26. 3 Ps 27:8. 4 2 Chron 20:12. 5 Ps 2:10. * Ps 34:18. * Isa 66:2. 6 Rom 10:14. James 1:6. 7 John 14:13-16. Daniel 9:17,18. 8 Matt  7:8. Ps 143:1. * Luke 18:13.

  1. What is the Nature of Believing Prayer?
  2. Whole heartedly Orthodox
    1. To the God who is
    2. Who has revealed himself in Scripture
    3. Sola Scriptura
    4. For All he commanded us to ask of him
  3. Needy
    1. Knowing our misery
    2. Knowing our inability
    3. Humbling ourselves
    4. In the presence of the King
  4. Confident
    1. On the basis of Christ's righteousness imputed (propter Christum)
    2. Our (natural) unworthiness notwithstanding
    3. He hears our prayer
    4. According to his promise in the Word

118. What has God commanded us to ask Him?

All things necessary for soul and body,1 which Christ our Lord comprised in the prayer, which He Himself taught us.

1James 1:17. Matt  6:33. * 1 Pet 5:7. * Phil 4:6.

  1. For What Do We Pray?
    1. All Things Necessary
    2. For Body and Sou
  2. As Christ Taught Us

119. What is the Lord's Prayer?

Our Father which art in heaven. Hallowed be your Name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: for thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory for ever. Amen.1

1 Matt  6:9-13. Luke 11:2-4.

120. Why did Christ command us to address God thus: "Our Father?"

To awaken in us at the very beginning of our prayer that childlike reverence for and trust in God, which are to be the ground of our prayer, namely, that God has become our Father through Christ, and will much less deny us what we ask of Him in faith than our parents refuse us earthly things.1

1 Matt  7:9-11. Luke 11:11-13. * 1 Pet 1:1 * Isa 63:16.

  1. Commanded to address "Our Father" (Paternoster)?
  2. By Christ the Son
  3. At the Outset
    1. To awaken childlike reverence
    2. To awaken childlike trust
    3. The ground of prayer
      1. That God is Our Father
      2. For Christ's Sake
      3. That he will answer our prayers
      4. Just as an earthly father answers requests

121. Why is it added: "Which art in heaven"?

That we may have no earthly thought of the heavenly Majesty of God, 1 and from His almighty power expect all things necessary for body and soul.2

1 Jer 23:23, 24. Acts 17:24, 25, 27. 2 Rom 10:12. * 1 Kgs 8:28. * Ps 115:3.

  1. Our Heavenly King
    1. His Majesty his Heavenly
    2. Our Help is in the name of the Lord
  2. His Kingdom
    1. Our help is not in earthly powers
    2. For Body
    3. for Soul

122. What is the first petition?

"Hallowed be Your name," that is: Grant us first, rightly to know you,1 and to hallow, magnify and praise you in all Your works, in which Your power, goodness, justice, mercy and truth shine forth;2 and further, that we so order our whole life, our thoughts, words, and deeds, that your name may not be blasphemed but honored and praised on our account.3

1 John 17:3. Matt  16:17. James 1:5. Ps 119:105. 2 Ps 119:137. Rom 11:33-36. 3 Ps 71:8. Ps 100:3,4. * Ps 91:1, 2. * Eph 1:16,17. * Ps 71:16.

  1. Hallowed Be Your Name
    1. Grant us rightly
      1. to know you
      2. to sanctify
      3. to praise
      4. In all your works
        1. Creation and Providence
        2. Redemption
        3. Sanctification ->Glorification
        4. Which show
          1. Power
          2. Goodness
          3. Justice
          4. Mercy
    2. That We Order Our Whole Life
      1. Thoughts
      2. Words
      3. Deeds
    3. Your name may
      1. not be blasphemed
      2. may be praised
      3. On our account

123. What is the second petition?

"Your kingdom come, that is: So govern us by Your Word and Spirit, that we submit ourselves to you always more and more;1 preserve and increase Your Church;2 destroy the works of the devil, every power that exalts itself against you, and all wicked devices formed against Your Holy Word,3 until the fullness of Your Kingdom come,4 wherein You shall be all in all.5

1 Ps 119:5. Ps 143:10. 2 Ps 51:18. Ps 122:6,7. 3 I John 3:8. Rom 16:20. 4 Rev 22:17, 20. Rom 8:22, 23. 5 1 Cor 15:28. * Ps 102:12,13. * Heb 12:28. * Rev 11:15. * 1 Cor 15:24.

  1. The Topic of the Second Petition: The Kingdom of God
    1. Anabaptists: Kingdom Obliterating Culture (over-realized eschatology)
    2. Rome: Kingdom Perfecting Culture (Chain of Being)
    3. Neo-Kuyperians: Kingdom Transforming Culture
      1. Left-wing: Every-member ministry (everything becomes cult)
      2. Right-wing: Social Transformation (everything becomes culture)
    4. Reformation: Two Kingdoms
      1. Kingdom of Man (Culture)
        1. Earthly
        2. Common
      2. Kingdom of God (Church)
        1. Spiritual
        2. Renewing man in the image of God
        3. Represented in this world by the visible, instituional church
  2. Let God's Kingdom Come
    1. So Govern us
      1. By Word
      2. By Spirit
    2. That we submit ourselves to God more and more
    3. That He increases and preserves his church
      1. That he destroy the works of the Devil
      2. That he destroy all opposition
    4. Until the fulness of the Kingdom comes

124. What is the third petition?

"Your will be done in earth as it is in heaven," that is: Grant that we and all men renounce our own will,1 and without gainsaying obey Your will which alone is good;2 that so every one may fulfill his office and calling as willingly and faithfully3 as the angels do in heaven.4

1Matt  15:24. 2 Luke 22:42. Titus 2:12. 3 1 Cor 7:24. 4 Ps 103:20, 21. * Rom 12:2. * Heb 13:21.

  1. Topic of the Third Petition: Christian Sanctity
    1. The Realization of the Kingdom Among Christians
      1. That we (and all men) Renounce Our own will
      2. Without Gainsaying obey God's will
    2. That each may
      1. fulfill his calling
      2. Willingly and faithfully
      3. As the angels
      4. The Reformation doctrine of vocation

125. What is the fourth petition?

"Give us this day our daily bread," that is: Be pleased to provide for all our bodily need,1 so that we may thereby acknowledge you to be the only fountain of all good,2 and that without Your blessing neither our care and labor, nor Your gifts can profit us;3 that we may therefore withdraw our trust from all creatures and place it alone in you.4

1 Ps 104:27, 28. Ps 145:15,16. Matt  5:25, 26. 2 Acts 14:17. Acts 17:27, 28. 3 1 Cor 15:58. Deut 8:3. Ps 37:3-7,16,17. 4 Ps 55:22. Ps 62:10. * Ps 127:1, 2. * Jer 17:5,7. * Ps 146:2, 3.

  1. Give us Our Daily Bread
  2. Be Please to Provide
    1. Providence
      1. Gubernatio
      2. Concursus
      3. Preservatio
    2. For our Bodily Needs
      1. Christianity contra Manichaean Dualism
      2. Christianity contra Platonic Dualism
      3. Christinaity contra Gnosticism
      4. Christianity contra neo-Paganism
      5. Christianity contra Deism
      6. Christianity contra Materialism
  3. That We May Acknowledge God
    1. To be the source of all good
    2. The sine qua non (Ps 127)
  4. That we may repent of trusting creatures
  5. That we may trust only God

126. What is the fifth petition?

"And forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors," that is: Be pleased for the sake of Christ's blood, not to impute to us miserable sinners our manifold transgressions, nor the evil which still always cleaves to us;1 as we also find this witness of Your grace in us, that it is our full purpose heartily to forgive our neighbor.2

1 Ps 51:1-4. Ps 143:2. 1 John 2:1, 2. 2 Matt  6:14,15. * Ps 51:5-7. * Eph 1:7.

  1. Forgive us Our Debts
    1. Be Pleased (beneplacitum)
    2. Propter Christum
    3. Blessed is the man to whom Yahweh imputes no sin (Ps 32:2)
      1. Our manifold sins
      2. The Evil That Still Always Clings to Us (Rom 7)
    4. As we Find this witness of your Favor in us
      1. As a consequence
      2. Not as a ground
      3. Not as an instrument
      4. Our new purpose
        1. in Christ
        2. heartily
        3. to forgive our neighbor
      5. Having Been Served by Christ We Serve Our Neighbor
      6. Luther: God doesn't need our good works but our neighbor does

127. What is the sixth petition?

"And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil, that is: Since we are so weak in ourselves that we cannot stand a moment,1 and besides, our deadly enemies, the devil,2 the world3 and our own flesh,4 assail us without ceasing, be pleased to preserve and strengthen us by the power of your Holy Spirit, that we may make firm stand against them and not be overcome in this spiritual warfare,5 until finally complete victory is ours.6

1 John 15:5.  Ps 103:14-16. 2 1 Pet 5:8,9. Eph 6:12,13. 3 John 15:19. 4 Rom 7:23. Gal 5:17. 5 Matt  26:41. Mark 13:33. 6 1 Thess 3:13. 1 Thess 5:23, 24. * 2 Cor 12:7.

  1. Negative: Let us Not Into Temptation
  2. Positive: Deliver us from Evil
    1. Given: We are so (spiritually and morally) weak
    2. We Cannot stand a moment (by ourselves)
    3. Given our deadly enemies
      1. Sin
      2. Flesh (sinful nature)
      3. Devil
    4. War against us continually
  3. One Prayer: Be Pleased
    1. To Preserve us
    2. To Strengthen us
    3. By the Spirit
  4. One Outcome: That we May stand
    1. That we May not be Overcome
    2. In Spiritual Warfare
    3. Until Victory: Glorification

128. How do you close this Prayer?

"For yours is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever," that is: All this we ask of you, because as our King, having power over all things, You are willing and able to give us all good;1 and that thereby not we, but your Holy Name may be glorified for ever.2

1 Rom 10:11,12. 2 Pet 2:9. 2 John 14:13. Ps 115:1.

  1. Yours in the Kingdom
    1. God is King
      1. He is Sovereign
      2. Over All Things
    2. He is our Heavenly Father
    3. Willing (intent)
    4. Able (power)
    5. To Give us All Good
  2. Soli Deo Gloria

129. What is the meaning of the word "Amen"?

Amen means: So shall it truly and surely be, for my prayer is much more certainly heard of God than I feel in my heart that I desire things of Him.1

1 2 Cor 1:20. 2 Tim 2:13. * Ps 145:18,19. Eph 3:20, 21. Rom 8:31-39.

  1. Amen
    1. The Grace of Prayer
      1. Grounded in the divine freedom
      2. Grounded in the divine will
      3. To hear from his children
    2. The Objectivity of Prayer
      1. So Shall it Truly and Surely Be
      2. Grounded in the divine promise
      3. It is more certainly heard
      4. Than my experience testifies